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      Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors : A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group

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      Advances In Anatomic Pathology

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. In part 2 of this review, we discuss the available evidence for the prognostic and predictive value of TILs in common solid tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, gynecologic system, and head and neck, as well as primary brain tumors, mesothelioma and melanoma. The particularities and different emphases in TIL assessment in different tumor types are discussed. The standardized methodology we propose can be adapted to different tumor types and may be used as a standard against which other approaches can be compared. Standardization of TIL assessment will help clinicians, researchers and pathologists to conclusively evaluate the utility of this simple biomarker in the current era of immunotherapy.

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          Final version of 2009 AJCC melanoma staging and classification.

          To revise the staging system for cutaneous melanoma on the basis of data from an expanded American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Staging Database. The melanoma staging recommendations were made on the basis of a multivariate analysis of 30,946 patients with stages I, II, and III melanoma and 7,972 patients with stage IV melanoma to revise and clarify TNM classifications and stage grouping criteria. Findings and new definitions include the following: (1) in patients with localized melanoma, tumor thickness, mitotic rate (histologically defined as mitoses/mm(2)), and ulceration were the most dominant prognostic factors. (2) Mitotic rate replaces level of invasion as a primary criterion for defining T1b melanomas. (3) Among the 3,307 patients with regional metastases, components that defined the N category were the number of metastatic nodes, tumor burden, and ulceration of the primary melanoma. (4) For staging purposes, all patients with microscopic nodal metastases, regardless of extent of tumor burden, are classified as stage III. Micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry are specifically included. (5) On the basis of a multivariate analysis of patients with distant metastases, the two dominant components in defining the M category continue to be the site of distant metastases (nonvisceral v lung v all other visceral metastatic sites) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level. Using an evidence-based approach, revisions to the AJCC melanoma staging system have been made that reflect our improved understanding of this disease. These revisions will be formally incorporated into the seventh edition (2009) of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual and implemented by early 2010.
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            Effector memory T cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer.

            The role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the early metastatic invasion of colorectal cancer is unknown. We studied pathological signs of early metastatic invasion (venous emboli and lymphatic and perineural invasion) in 959 specimens of resected colorectal cancer. The local immune response within the tumor was studied by flow cytometry (39 tumors), low-density-array real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay (75 tumors), and tissue microarrays (415 tumors). Univariate analysis showed significant differences in disease-free and overall survival according to the presence or absence of histologic signs of early metastatic invasion (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that an early conventional pathological tumor-node-metastasis stage (P<0.001) and the absence of early metastatic invasion (P=0.04) were independently associated with increased survival. As compared with tumors with signs of early metastatic invasion, tumors without such signs had increased infiltrates of immune cells and increased levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for products of type 1 helper effector T cells (CD8, T-BET [T-box transcription factor 21], interferon regulatory factor 1, interferon-gamma, granulysin, and granzyme B) but not increased levels of inflammatory mediators or immunosuppressive molecules. The two types of tumors had significant differences in the levels of expression of 65 combinations of T-cell markers, and hierarchical clustering showed that markers of T-cell migration, activation, and differentiation were increased in tumors without signs of early metastatic invasion. The latter type of tumors also had increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, ranging from early memory (CD45RO+CCR7-CD28+CD27+) to effector memory (CD45RO+CCR7-CD28-CD27-) T cells. The presence of high levels of infiltrating memory CD45RO+ cells, evaluated immunohistochemically, correlated with the absence of signs of early metastatic invasion, a less advanced pathological stage, and increased survival. Signs of an immune response within colorectal cancers are associated with the absence of pathological evidence of early metastatic invasion and with prolonged survival. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Systematic review of microsatellite instability and colorectal cancer prognosis.

              A number of studies have investigated the relationship between microsatellite instability (MSI) and colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. Although many have reported a better survival with MSI, estimates of the hazard ratio (HR) among studies differ. To derive a more precise estimate of the prognostic significance of MSI, we have reviewed and pooled data from published studies. Studies stratifying survival in CRC patients by MSI status were eligible for analysis. The principal outcome measure was the HR. Data from eligible studies were pooled using standard techniques. Thirty-two eligible studies reported survival in a total of 7,642 cases, including 1,277 with MSI. There was no evidence of publication bias. The combined HR estimate for overall survival associated with MSI was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.71; heterogeneity P = .16; I(2) = 20%). This benefit was maintained restricting analyses to clinical trial patients (HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.85) and patients with locally advanced CRC (HR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.78). In patients treated with adjuvant fluorouracil (FU) CRCs with MSI had a better prognosis (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.84). However, while data are limited, tumors with MSI derived no benefit from adjuvant FU (HR = 1.24; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.14). CRCs with MSI have a significantly better prognosis compared to those with intact mismatch repair. Additional studies are needed to further define the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced tumors with MSI.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances In Anatomic Pathology
                Advances In Anatomic Pathology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1072-4109
                2017
                November 2017
                : 24
                : 6
                : 311-335
                Article
                10.1097/PAP.0000000000000161
                5638696
                28777143
                © 2017
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