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      Fossil Genera in Elateridae (Insecta, Coleoptera): A Triassic Origin and Jurassic Diversification

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          Abstract

          Insect fossils bear important information about the evolutionary history of the group. The fossil record of Elateridae, a large cosmopolitan beetle family, has been greatly understudied and the available data are often replete with ambiguity and uncertainty. The research of Elateridae evolution cannot be done without solid genus-group name concepts. In this study we provide an updated comprehensive summary of the fossil genera in Elateridae, including their systematic placement and information on the type species, gender, number of species, age range, and relevant bibliography. We list seven valid fossil genera in Agrypninae, one in Cardiophorinae, two in Dendrometrinae, five in Elaterinae, two in Negastriinae, one in Omalisinae, one in Pityobiinae, and 36 in Protagrypninae. Additional 19 genera are tentatively classified as Elateridae incertae sedis, and their placements are discussed. Further, we move genera Babuskaya Martins-Neto & Gallego, 2009, Cardiosyne Martins-Neto & Gallego, 2006, Fengningia Hong, 1984 and Gemelina Martins-Neto & Gallego, 2006 from Elateridae to Coleoptera incertae sedis. We also discuss the genera previously placed in Elateridae, which are currently not included in the family. The data on the fossil generic diversity suggest that Elateridae originated in the Triassic and rapidly diversified and became comparatively abundant through the Jurassic. We call for further research on the fossil Elateridae from various deposits in order to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution, and palaeodiversity of the group.

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          Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

          Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae).
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            The phylogeny and limits of Elateridae (Insecta, Coleoptera): is there a common tendency of click beetles to soft-bodiedness and neoteny?

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              Phylogenetic relationships of Elateridae inferred from adult morphology, with special reference to the position of Cardiophorinae

               HUME DOUGLAS (2011)
              A phylogeny is presented for the Elateridae, inferred from parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 175 adult morphological characters. Analyses using non gap-weighted morphological data yielded results compatible with each other and some published classifications, while gap-weighted parsimony analysis did not. Bayesian posterior probabilities for the monophyly of the Elateridae and the elaterid subfamilies Athoinae (sensu Dolin 1975), Cardiophorinae (including Exoeolus Broun), Denticollinae (sensu Stibick 1979a), Elaterinae (sensu Stibick 1979a), Hypnoidinae (sensu Stibick 1976) and Lissominae (sensu Calder et al. 1993) were less than 0.05. The bioluminescent genus Pyrophorus was found to be an apical member of the mostly non-bioluminescent Agrypninae, supporting the hypothesis of at least one independent origin of bioluminescence in the Elateridae. The closest relatives to the Cardiophorinae minus Exoeolus were found in the Negastriinae. The subfamilies Cardiophorinae + Negastriinae + Tropihypnus Reitter together rendered the Hypnoidinae (or the tribe Hypnoidini of Denticollinae) paraphyletic. Lesnelater madagascariensis Fleutiaux (the type species of Lesnelater Fleutiaux) is synonymised under the type species of Pachyelater Lesne: P. madagascariensis (Lesne) so that Lesnelater is a new synonym of Pachyelater. The genus Exoeolus Broun is transferred from the Cardiophorinae to the Hemiopinae; the fossil genus Crioraphes Iablokoff-Khnzorian is transferred to the Elaterinae incertae sedis; the fossil genera Pseudocardiophorites Dolin, and Protocardiophorus Dolin are transferred to Elateroidea incertae sedis. Dolin’s (1976) hypothesis of a Jurassic origin of the Cardiophorinae was not supported by fossil evidence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                26 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 11
                : 6
                Affiliations
                Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 77146 Olomouc, Czech Republic; gabriela.packova01@ 123456upol.cz (G.P.); johana.hoffmannova01@ 123456upol.cz (J.H.)
                Author notes
                Article
                insects-11-00394
                10.3390/insects11060394
                7348820
                32604761
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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