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      Tratamiento de malformaciones y tumores vasculares, en un centro de referencia en Bogotá Translated title: Treatment of vascular malformations and tumors in a reference center in Bogotá

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          Abstract

          Resumen Introducción. Las malformaciones vasculares son anomalías que están presentes desde el nacimiento, no desaparecen y pueden crecer a lo largo de la vida. Se ha demostrado en estudios retrospectivos que la terminología para clasificar las anomalías vasculares es inexacta en un 69 % de casos, por lo que se hace un diagnostico inadecuado y en un 53 % de casos se brinda al paciente y su familia una información incorrecta del tratamiento y el curso clínico. Métodos. Estudio prospectivo longitudinal, realizado entre 2016 y 2019, donde se incluyeron pacientes con anomalías vasculares, que consultaron a nuestra institución, fueron valorados por el servicio de cirugía vascular, se hizo un plan diagnóstico y manejo integral, vía endovascular, quirúrgica o mixta, de acuerdo con cada caso. Resultados. La malformación más común fue la de tipo venoso, en el 40,3 % de los casos. Se realizó manejo endovascular en el 93,1 % de casos de malformaciones vasculares y quirúrgico en el 6,9 %. La mejoría de los síntomas que motivaron la consulta fue del 100 % para los tumores vasculares y del 70,8 % para las malformaciones. Sin embargo, los resultados son heterogéneos. Discusión. Es necesario realizar un adecuado diagnóstico de las anomalías vasculares, para alcanzar un tratamiento eficaz, con mejoría de los síntomas.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Introduction. Vascular malformations are abnormalities that are present from birth, do not disappear and can grow throughout life. It has been shown in retrospective studies that the terminology to classify vascular anomalies is inaccurate in 69% of cases, an inappropriate diagnosis is made and in 53% of cases the patient and their family are given incorrect information on the treatment and the clinical course. Methods. Longitudinal prospective study conducted between 2016 and 2019. Patients with vascular anomalies and consulted to our institution were included. They were evaluated by the vascular surgery service, and a comprehensive diagnosis and management plan was made, including endovascular, surgical or mixed, according to each case. Results. The most common malformation was the venous type in 40.3% of the cases. Endovascular management was performed in 93.1% of cases and surgery in 6.9%. The improvement in the symptoms that led to the consultation was 100% for vascular tumors and 70.8% for malformations. However, the results are heterogeneous. Conclusions. It is necessary to obtain an adequate diagnosis of vascular anomalies, to achieve an effective treatment, with improvement of the symptoms.

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          Overview: How Is Alcohol Metabolized by the Body?

           Samir Zakhari (2006)
          Alcohol is eliminated from the body by various metabolic mechanisms. The primary enzymes involved are aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), and catalase. Variations in the genes for these enzymes have been found to influence alcohol consumption, alcohol-related tissue damage, and alcohol dependence. The consequences of alcohol metabolism include oxygen deficits (i.e., hypoxia) in the liver; interaction between alcohol metabolism byproducts and other cell components, resulting in the formation of harmful compounds (i.e., adducts); formation of highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules (i.e., reactive oxygen species [ROS]) that can damage other cell components; changes in the ratio of NADH to NAD+ (i.e., the cell’s redox state); tissue damage; fetal damage; impairment of other metabolic processes; cancer; and medication interactions. Several issues related to alcohol metabolism require further research.
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            Classification and management of the various superficial vascular anomalies: hemangiomas and vascular malformations.

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              Prevalence of deep venous anomalies in congenital vascular malformations of venous predominance.

              The overall incidence of congenital vascular malformations in the general population is 1.5%. Approximately two thirds of them are malformations of venous predominance. Abnormalities of the deep venous trunks have been observed in association with large superficial compensatory varices in these type of malformations. Knowledge of the integrity of the deep venous system is important in their management because excision of the enlarged superficial veins may be deleterious if there is aplasia or hypoplasia of the deep venous trunks. The objective was to investigate the prevalence and nature of deep venous anomalies that occur in patients with congenital vascular malformations of venous predominance both in our series and in the series from the medical literature. From the last 35 years of medical literature, we reviewed seven series of congenital vascular malformations that provided pertinent information on the subject of our study. We also reviewed our own series of 392 patients with congenital vascular malformations studied at Children's Hospital of Mexico City (1963-1983; n = 223 children) and at Walter Reed Army and National Naval Medical Centers (1984-1998; n = 169 children). Of 392 patients, 257 (65.5%) had malformations of venous predominance; these were the subject of our analysis. Prevalence of the following deep venous anomalies was recorded: phlebectasia, aplasia or hypoplasia of venous trunks, aneurysms, and avalvulia. Diagnosis was made by one or more of the following methods: Doppler scanning, duplex scanning, plethysmography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography. At least one anomaly of the deep venous system was present in 47% of the congenital vascular malformations of venous predominance reviewed. Phlebectasia was recorded in 36% of the cases, and aplasia or hypoplasia of deep venous trunks was observed in 8% of the cases. Venous aneurysms also were present in 8% of the cases; avalvulia was recorded in 7% of the cases. Anomalies of the deep venous system occur in almost one half of congenital vascular malformations of venous predominance. The most common is the relatively innocuous phlebectasias that occur in over one third of cases. Aplasia/hypoplasia, venous aneurysms, and avalvulia were less frequent, each less than 10%; but failure to detect the latter three anomalies may lead to serious therapeutic errors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcci
                Revista Colombiana de Cirugía
                rev. colomb. cir.
                Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía (Bogotá, Distrito Capital, Colombia )
                2011-7582
                2619-6107
                December 2020
                : 35
                : 4
                : 647-658
                Affiliations
                Bogotá D.C orgnameHospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael Colombia
                Bogotá D.C orgnameHospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael Colombia
                Bogotá D.C orgnameHospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael Colombia
                Bogotá D.C orgnameHospital Universitario Clínica San Rafael Colombia
                Article
                S2011-75822020000400647 S2011-7582(20)03500400647
                10.30944/20117582.803

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 12
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