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The role of the central renin-angiotensin system in Parkinson's disease.

Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS

pharmacology, therapeutic use, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Animals, Humans, Parkinson Disease, physiology, drug therapy, physiopathology, Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2, metabolism, Renin-Angiotensin System, drug effects, Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers

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      Since the discovery of a renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain, several studies have linked this central RAS to neurological disorders such as ischaemia, Alzheimer's disease and depression. In the last decade, evidence has accumulated that the central RAS might also play a role in Parkinson's disease. Although the exact cause of this progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia remains unidentified, inflammation and oxidative stress have been suggested to be key factors in the pathogenesis and the progression of the disease. Since angiotensin II is a pro-inflammatory compound that can induce the production of reactive oxygen species due to activation of the NADPH-dependent oxidase complex, this peptide might contribute to dopaminergic cell death. In this review, three different strategies to interfere with the pathogenesis or the progression of Parkinson's disease are discussed. They include inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor.

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