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      The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins

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          Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are fundamental cell regulators with an evolutionary conserved role synchronising tissue growth, development and function according to metabolic conditions. Although structurally very similar to insulin, the IGFs act in a very different way as cell regulators. Whereas insulin is stored in a specific gland and released when needed, the IGFs are stored outside of cells with soluble binding proteins. A very complex system of six IGF binding proteins, each of which exists in various modified states and interacts with other proteins, provides a sophisticated system for conferring specificity to provide a finely tuned system for local regulation at the tissue level.

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          Most cited references 31

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          The CCN family of angiogenic regulators: the integrin connection.

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            Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 stimulates cell migration and binds to the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin by means of its Arg-Gly-Asp sequence.

            Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin recognition sequence. In vitro mutagenesis was used to alter this RGD sequence to Trp-Gly-Asp (WGD). Migration of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the wild-type protein was more than 3-fold greater in 48 hr compared with cells expressing the WGD mutant form of IGFBP-1. Similarly, wild-type IGFBP-1 added to the media of control CHO cells stimulated migration 2-fold compared with the WGD protein. A synthetic RGD-containing peptide, when added to the medium with wild-type IGFBP-1, blocked the effect of IGFBP-1 on cell migration. The addition of IGF-I to the culture medium had no effect on the migration of cells expressing IGFBP-1 or vector alone. Affinity chromatography of 125I-labeled CHO cell membrane proteins, using IGFBP-1 coupled to agarose, identified the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin (fibronectin receptor) as the only cell surface molecule capable of binding IGFBP-1 in an RGD-dependent manner. Furthermore, wild-type IGFBP-1, but not the WGD mutant form, could be coprecipitated from CHO cells with an antibody directed against the alpha 5 integrin subunit. These studies demonstrate that IGFBP-1 stimulates CHO cell migration and binds to the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptor, both by an RGD-dependent mechanism. The effect of IGFBP-1 on migration is independent of IGF-I and is probably mediated through the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin.
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              Functional role of cell surface integrins on human trophoblast cell migration: regulation by TGF-beta, IGF-II, and IGFBP-1.

               P Lala,  Andrew Irving (1995)
              Trophoblast invasion of the human uterus is stringently controlled by the microenvironment. Invasive extravillous trophoblast cells in situ as well as in culture express a selective repertoire of cell surface integrins. Since migration is a necessary step in the invasion cascade, we tested whether certain integrins or invasion-regulating molecules, i.e., TGF-beta, IGF-II, and IGFBP-1 produced at the fetomaternal interface had a functional role on trophoblast migration. Flow cytometric analysis of integrin expression and the use of an in vitro cell migration assay revealed that exogenous TGF-beta upregulates integrin expression and reduces migratory ability to the invasive trophoblast, whereas IGF-II has no effect on integrin expression but stimulates migration. Trophoblast migration was inhibited in the presence of alpha 5 and beta 1 integrin blocking antibodies, indicating its dependence on the expression of these subunits. Furthermore, IGFBP-1, which contains an RGD sequence recognizing certain integrins, stimulated migration, an effect that was blocked by pretreatment with anti-alpha 5 or -beta 1 blocking Abs. These studies demonstrate that the migration of first trimester invasive trophoblast in vitro (1) requires the expression of alpha 5 and beta 1 integrin subunits, (2) is inhibited by TGF-beta, possibly due to increased cell adhesiveness to the extracellular matrix, (3) is stimulated by IGF-II by an as yet undetermined mechanism, and (4) is stimulated by IGFBP-1, likely by interaction with the RGD binding site of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin. The invasion-regulating effects of TGF-beta, IGF-II, and IGFBP-1 may thus, at least in part, be due to their migration-regulating effects on the invasive trophoblast.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2006
                16 October 2006
                : 83
                : 3-4
                : 154-160
                Department of Clinical Science at North Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
                95523 Neuroendocrinology 2006;83:154–160
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 44, Pages: 7


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