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      WINGLESS (WNT) signaling is a progesterone target for rat uterine stromal cell proliferation


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          Preparation of mammalian uterus for embryo implantation requires a precise sequence of cell proliferation. In rodent uterus, estradiol stimulates proliferation of epithelial cells. Progesterone operates as a molecular switch and redirects proliferation to the stroma by down-regulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and stimulating β-catenin accumulation in the periluminal stromal cells. In this study, the WNT signal involved in the progesterone-dependent proliferative switch was investigated. Transcripts of four candidate Wnt genes were measured in the uteri from ovariectomized (OVX) rats, progesterone-pretreated (3 days of progesterone, 2mg/daily) rats, and progesterone-pretreated rats given a single dose (0.2µg) of estradiol. The spatial distribution of the WNT proteins was determined in the uteri after the same treatments. Wnt5a increased in response to progesterone and the protein emerged in the periluminal stromal cells of progesterone-pretreated rat uteri. To investigate whether WNT5A was required for proliferation, uterine stromal cell lines were stimulated with progesterone (1µM) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF, 50ng/mL). Proliferating stromal cells expressed a two-fold increase in WNT5A protein at 12h post stimulation. Stimulated stromal cells were cultured with actinomycin D (25µg/mL) to inhibit new RNA synthesis. Relative Wnt5a expression increased at 4 and 6 h of culture, suggesting that progesterone plus FGF preferentially increased Wnt5a mRNA stability. Knockdown of Wnt5a in uterine stromal cell lines inhibited stromal cell proliferation and decreased Wnt5a mRNA. The results indicate that progesterone initiates and synchronizes uterine stromal cell proliferation by increasing WNT5A expression and signaling.

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          Most cited references39

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          Mice lacking progesterone receptor exhibit pleiotropic reproductive abnormalities.

          Although progesterone has been recognized as essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, this steroid hormone has been recently implicated to have a functional role in a number of other reproductive events. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the progesterone receptor (PR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. In most cases the PR is induced by estrogen, implying that many of the in vivo effects attributed to progesterone could also be the result of concomitantly administered estrogen. Therefore, to clearly define those physiological events that are specifically attributable to progesterone in vivo, we have generated a mouse model carrying a null mutation of the PR gene using embryonic stem cell/gene targeting techniques. Male and female embryos homozygous for the PR mutation developed normally to adulthood. However, the adult female PR mutant displayed significant defects in all reproductive tissues. These included an inability to ovulate, uterine hyperplasia and inflammation, severely limited mammary gland development, and an inability to exhibit sexual behavior. Collectively, these results provide direct support for progesterone's role as a pleiotropic coordinator of diverse reproductive events that together ensure species survival.
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            Molecular cues to implantation.

            Successful implantation is the result of reciprocal interactions between the implantation-competent blastocyst and receptive uterus. Although various cellular aspects and molecular pathways of this dialogue have been identified, a comprehensive understanding of the implantation process is still missing. The receptive state of the uterus, which lasts for a limited period, is defined as the time when the uterine environment is conducive to blastocyst acceptance and implantation. A better understanding of the molecular signals that regulate uterine receptivity and implantation competency of the blastocyst is of clinical relevance because unraveling the nature of these signals may lead to strategies to correct implantation failure and improve pregnancy rates. Gene expression studies and genetically engineered mouse models have provided valuable clues to the implantation process with respect to specific growth factors, cytokines, lipid mediators, adhesion molecules, and transcription factors. However, a staggering amount of information from microarray experiments is also being generated at a rapid pace. If properly annotated and explored, this information will expand our knowledge regarding yet-to-be-identified unique, complementary, and/or redundant molecular pathways in implantation. It is hoped that the forthcoming information will generate new ideas and concepts for a process that is essential for maintaining procreation and solving major reproductive health issues in women.
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              Beta-catenin directly displaces Groucho/TLE repressors from Tcf/Lef in Wnt-mediated transcription activation.

              Wnt growth factors mediate cell fate determination during embryogenesis and in the renewal of tissues in the adult. Wnts act by stabilizing cellular levels of the transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin, which forms complexes with sequence-specific DNA-binding Tcf/Lef transcription factors. In the absence of nuclear beta-catenin, Tcf/Lefs act as transcriptional repressors by binding to Groucho/TLE proteins. The molecular basis of the switch from transcriptional repression to activation during Wnt signaling has not been clear, in particular whether factors other than beta-catenin are required to disrupt the interaction between Groucho/TLE and Tcf/Lef. Using highly purified proteins, we demonstrate that beta-catenin displaces Groucho/TLE from Tcf/Lef by binding to a previously unidentified second, low-affinity binding site on Lef-1 that includes sequences just N-terminal to the DNA-binding domain, and that overlaps the Groucho/TLE-binding site.

                Author and article information

                J Endocrinol
                J. Endocrinol
                The Journal of Endocrinology
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                May 2016
                01 May 2016
                : 229
                : 2
                : 197-207
                [1 ]Department of Biology Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, Kansas, USA
                [2 ]Department of Radiation Oncology The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to V Rider; Email: vrider@ 123456pittstate.edu
                © 2016 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

                : 15 February 2016
                : 14 March 2016

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                cell proliferation,progesterone,wnt signaling,uterus
                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                cell proliferation, progesterone, wnt signaling, uterus


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