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      Schistosoma haematobium hotspots in south Nyanza, western Kenya: prevalence, distribution and co-endemicity with Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths

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          Abstract

          Background

          Schistosomiasis studies in western Kenya have mainly focused on the intestinal form, with evidence of urinary schistosomiasis remaining anecdotal. Detailed disease mapping has been carried out predominantly along the shores of Lake Victoria, but there is a paucity of information on intestinal and urinary schistosomiasis in inland sites.

          Methods

          This cross-sectional survey of 3,487 children aged 7–18 years from 95 schools in south Nyanza, western Kenya determined the prevalence, infection intensity, and geographical distribution of Schistosoma haematobium, evaluating its co-endemicity with Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Helminth eggs were analyzed from single urine (for S. haematobium) and stool (for S. mansoni and STHs) samples by centrifugation and Kato-Katz, respectively. Hematuria was used as a proxy indicator for S. haematobium. Schools and water bodies (ponds, water-points, streams, dams and rivers) were mapped using Geographical Information System and prevalence maps obtained using ArcView GIS Software.

          Results

          S. haematobium infections with an overall prevalence of 9.3% (95% CI = 8.4-10.2%) were mostly prevalent in Rachuonyo, 22.4% (95% CI = 19.2-25.9% and 19.7 eggs/10 ml) and Migori, 10.7% (95% CI = 9.2-12.3% and 29.5 eggs/10 ml) districts, particularly around Kayuka pond and Ongoche river respectively. Overall infections correlated with hematuria (r = 0.9, P < 0.0001) and were more likely in boys (P < 0.0001, OR = 0.624). S. mansoni infections with an overall prevalence of 13% (95% CI =11.9-14.1%) were majorly confined along the shores of Lake Victoria. STH infections were homogenously distributed with A. lumbricoides occurring in 5.4% (95% CI = 4.7-6.3%) and T. trichiura in 2.8% (95% CI = 2.3-3.4%) of the children. Although S. mansoni infections were more co-endemic with S. haematobium, only A. lumbricoides infections were positively associated with S. haematobium (P = 0.0295, OR = 0.4585). Overall prevalence of S. haematobium monoinfection was 7.2% (95% CI = 6.4-8%), S. mansoni monoinfection was 12.3% (95% CI = 10.4-12.5%), and S. haematobium- S. mansoni coinfection was 1.2% (95% CI = 0.9-1.6%). There was no significant difference in infection intensity between mono and coinfections.

          Conclusion

          Prevalence distribution maps obtained are important for planning and implementing disease control programs in these areas.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk.

          An estimated 779 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, of whom 106 million (13.6%) live in irrigation schemes or in close proximity to large dam reservoirs. We identified 58 studies that examined the relation between water resources development projects and schistosomiasis, primarily in African settings. We present a systematic literature review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (1) to update at-risk populations of schistosomiasis and number of people infected in endemic countries, and (2) to quantify the risk of water resources development and management on schistosomiasis. Using 35 datasets from 24 African studies, our meta-analysis showed pooled random risk ratios of 2.4 and 2.6 for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively, among people living adjacent to dam reservoirs. The risk ratio estimate for studies evaluating the effect of irrigation on urinary schistosomiasis was in the range 0.02-7.3 (summary estimate 1.1) and that on intestinal schistosomiasis in the range 0.49-23.0 (summary estimate 4.7). Geographic stratification showed important spatial differences, idiosyncratic to the type of water resources development. We conclude that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects.
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            Human schistosomiasis.

            Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a tropical disease caused by worms of the genus Schistosoma. The transmission cycle requires contamination of surface water by excreta, specific freshwater snails as intermediate hosts, and human water contact. The main disease-causing species are S haematobium, S mansoni, and S japonicum. According to WHO, 200 million people are infected worldwide, leading to the loss of 1.53 million disability-adjusted life years, although these figures need revision. Schistosomiasis is characterised by focal epidemiology and overdispersed population distribution, with higher infection rates in children than in adults. Complex immune mechanisms lead to the slow acquisition of immune resistance, though innate factors also play a part. Acute schistosomiasis, a feverish syndrome, is mostly seen in travellers after primary infection. Chronic schistosomal disease affects mainly individuals with long-standing infections in poor rural areas. Immunopathological reactions against schistosome eggs trapped in the tissues lead to inflammatory and obstructive disease in the urinary system (S haematobium) or intestinal disease, hepatosplenic inflammation, and liver fibrosis (S mansoni, S japonicum). The diagnostic standard is microscopic demonstration of eggs in the excreta. Praziquantel is the drug treatment of choice. Vaccines are not yet available. Great advances have been made in the control of the disease through population-based chemotherapy but these required political commitment and strong health systems.
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              Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Disease Burden

              The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40–50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases), accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46–51 million cases) and onchocerciasis (37 million cases) are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases). However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central
                1756-3305
                2014
                25 March 2014
                : 7
                : 125
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box 1578-40100, Kisumu, Kenya
                Article
                1756-3305-7-125
                10.1186/1756-3305-7-125
                3994281
                24667030
                Copyright © 2014 Sang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research

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