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Accuracy and precision of an external-marker tracking-system for radiotherapy treatments.

The British Journal of Radiology

Reference Standards, Sensitivity and Specificity, Humans, Computers, Movement, Phantoms, Imaging, Photography, standards, Radiotherapy, Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted, instrumentation, methods, Algorithms, Calibration

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      The purpose of this work was to determine the accuracy and precision of a real-time motion-tracking system (Osiris+) for the monitoring of external markers used on patients receiving radiotherapy treatments. Random and systematic errors in the system were evaluated for linear (1D), circular (2D) and elliptical (3D) continuous motions, and for a set of static positions offset from an origin. A Wellhofer beam data measurement system and a computer controlled platform (which could be programmed to give motion in 3D) were used to move a hemi-spherical test object. The test object had four markers of the type used on patients. Three markers were aligned in the central plane and a fourth was positioned out of plane. Errors were expressed as deviations from the planned positions at the sampled time points. The marked points on the test object were tracked for the linear motion case with a variation from the true position of less than +/-1 mm, except for two extreme situations. The variation was within +/-2 mm when the lights were dimmed and when the amplitude of the movement was +/-5.0 cm. The 2D circular motion was tracked with a standard deviation of 1 mm or less over four cycles. The sampling rates of the system were found to be 0.3-0.4 s when it was monitoring actively and 1.5-1.6 s otherwise. The recorded Osiris+ measurements of known static positions were within +/-1 mm of the value from the computer controlled platform moving the test object. The elliptical motions in 3D were tracked to +/-1 mm in two directions (Y,Z), and generally to within +/-2 mm for the third direction (X); however, specific marked points could display an error of up to 5 mm at certain positions in X. The overall displacement error for the 3D motion was +/-1 mm with a standard deviation of 2.5 mm. The system performance is satisfactory for use in tracking external marker motion during radiotherapy treatments.

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