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      Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Level is Associated with Fibrosis and Renal Survival in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: In view of the latest findings that matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) acted as a vital marker and pathogenic mediator of renal fibrosis in a murine model, we hypothesized that serum MMP-7 level might serve as a noninvasive prognostic biomarker in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective follow-up study of 244 IgAN patients for a median of 81.9 months. Serum MMP-7 was detected at the time of diagnosis, and renal progression was assessed by Cox proportional hazards method. Results: Compared with healthy populations, the serum levels of MMP-7 were significantly elevated in IgAN patients. Besides, serum MMP-7 levels were well correlated with renal scarring lesions characterized by glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Follow-up analyses revealed that increased serum MMP-7 levels were linked with a greater risk of poor renal outcome with a hazard ratio of 1.898 per doubling MMP-7 concentration. By contrast with the first quartile, the risk of deterioration in renal function elevated such that the hazard ratio for the second quartile was 1.805, 3.383 for the third, and 5.173 for the fourth quartile of the MMP-7 level. Conclusions: This study showed that the higher serum MMP-7 levels were independently associated with renal fibrosis and poor prognosis in IgAN.

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          Most cited references33

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          Remission of proteinuria improves prognosis in IgA nephropathy.

          Proteinuria has been shown to be an adverse prognostic factor in IgA nephropathy. The benefit of achieving a partial remission of proteinuria, however, has not been well described. We studied 542 patients with biopsy-proven primary IgA nephropathy in the Toronto Glomerulonephritis Registry and found that glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declined at -0.38 +/- 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2/mo overall, with 30% of subjects reaching end-stage renal disease. Multivariate analysis revealed that proteinuria during follow-up was the most important predictor of the rate of GFR decline. Among the 171 patients with 3 g/d (n = 121) lost renal function 25-fold faster than those with or =3 g/d who achieved a partial remission (<1 g/d) had a similar course to patients who had < or =1 g/d throughout, and fared far better than patients who never achieved remission. These results underscore the relationship between proteinuria and prognosis in IgA nephropathy and establish the importance of remission.
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            IgA nephropathy.

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              Validation of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy in cohorts with different presentations and treatments

              The Oxford Classification of IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) identified mesangial hypercellularity (M), endocapillary proliferation (E), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S), and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T) as independent predictors of outcome. Whether it applies to individuals excluded from the original study and how therapy influences the predictive value of pathology remain uncertain. The VALIGA study examined 1147 patients from 13 European countries that encompassed the whole spectrum of IgAN. Over a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 86% received renin–angiotensin system blockade and 42% glucocorticoid/immunosuppressive drugs. M, S, and T lesions independently predicted the loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and a lower renal survival. Their value was also assessed in patients not represented in the Oxford cohort. In individuals with eGFR less than 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, the M and T lesions independently predicted a poor survival. In those with proteinuria under 0.5 g/day, both M and E lesions were associated with a rise in proteinuria to 1 or 2 g/day or more. The addition of M, S, and T lesions to clinical variables significantly enhanced the ability to predict progression only in those who did not receive immunosuppression (net reclassification index 11.5%). The VALIGA study provides a validation of the Oxford classification in a large European cohort of IgAN patients across the whole spectrum of the disease. The independent predictive value of pathology MEST score is reduced by glucocorticoid/immunosuppressive therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2017
                October 2017
                18 September 2017
                : 42
                : 3
                : 541-552
                Affiliations
                Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Kidney Disease Immunology Laboratory, The Third Grade Laboratory, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of PR China, Key Laboratory of Multiple Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Health, Key Laboratory of Nephropathy, Zhejiang, China
                Author notes
                *Prof. Jianghua Chen, MD, Kidney Disease Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University,, Qingchun Road No. 79, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou 310003 (China), Tel. +86-15167167865, Fax +86-571-87236992, E-Mail chenjianghua@zju.edu.cn
                Article
                477132 Kidney Blood Press Res 2017;42:541–552
                10.1159/000477132
                28922659
                beccb983-da87-4881-8e2c-a0a09f32b063
                © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 12 January 2017
                : 08 March 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                IgA nephropathy,Matrix metalloproteinase-7,Kidney disease progression,Noninvasive,Renal fibrosis

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