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      Identification and Molecular Characterization of Microneme 5 of Eimeria acervulina

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          In the present study, the microneme 5 gene of Eimeria acervulina ( E. acervulina) (EaMIC5) was cloned and characterized. Specific primers for the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were designed based on the expressed sequence tag (EST, GenBank Accession No. EH386430.1) to amplify the 3′- and 5′-ends of EaMIC5. The full length cDNA of this gene was obtained by overlapping the sequences of 3′- and 5′-extremities and amplification by reverse transcription PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the open reading frame (ORF) of EaMIC5 was 336 bp and encoded a protein of 111 amino acids with 12.18 kDa. The ORF was inserted into pET-32a (+) to produce recombinant EaMIC5. Using western blotting assay, the recombinant protein was successfully recognized by the sera of chicks experimentally infected with E. acervulina, while the native protein in the somatic extract of sporozoites was as well detected by sera from rats immunized with the recombinant protein of EaMIC5. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against recombinant protein EaMIC5 indicated that this protein was expressed in the sporozoites and merozoites stages of E. acervulina. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein of EaMIC5 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens, and presented anti-coccidial index (ACI) more than 160. All the above results suggested that the EaMIC5 was a novel E. acervulina antigen and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against this parasite.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Stat6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cells.

          Interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulation of cells leads to the activation of multiple signaling pathways, one of which involves Stat6. We have generated Stat6-deficient mice by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to determine the role of this transcription factor in mediating the biologic functions of IL-4. IL-4-induced increases in the cell surface expression of both MHC class II antigens and IL-4 receptor are completely abrogated, and lymphocytes from Stat6-deficient animals fail to proliferate in response to IL-4. Stat6-deficient B cells do not produce IgE following in vivo immunization with anti-IgD. In addition, Stat6-deficient T lymphocytes fail to differentiate into Th2 cells in response to either IL-4 or Il-13. These results demonstrate that, despite the existence of multiple signaling pathways activated by IL-4, Stat6 is essential for mediating responses to IL-4 lymphocytes.
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            Mobilization of intracellular calcium stimulates microneme discharge in Toxoplasma gondii.

            Apicomplexan parasites, including Toxoplasma gondii, apically attach to their host cells before invasion. Recent studies have implicated the contents of micronemes, which are small secretory organelles confined to the apical region of the parasite, in the process of host cell attachment. Here, we demonstrate that microneme discharge is regulated by parasite cytoplasmic free Ca2+ and that the micronemal contents, including the MIC2 adhesin, are released through the extreme apical tip of the parasite. Microneme secretion was triggered by Ca2+ ionophores in both the presence and the absence of external Ca2+, while chelation of intracellular Ca2+ prevented release. Mobilization of intracellular calcium with thapsagargin or NH4Cl also triggered microneme secretion, indicating that intracellular calcium stores are sufficient to stimulate release. Following activation of secretion by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, MIC2 initially occupied the apical surface of the parasite, but was then rapidly treadmilled to the posterior end and released into the culture supernatant. This capping and release of MIC2 by ionophore-stimulated tachyzoites mimics the redistribution of MIC2 that occurs during attachment and penetration of host cells, and both events are dependent on the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of the parasite. These studies indicate that microneme release is a stimulus-coupled secretion system responsible for releasing adhesins involved in cell attachment.
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              Members of a novel protein family containing microneme adhesive repeat domains act as sialic acid-binding lectins during host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites.

              Numerous intracellular pathogens exploit cell surface glycoconjugates for host cell recognition and entry. Unlike bacteria and viruses, Toxoplasma gondii and other parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa actively invade host cells, and this process critically depends on adhesins (microneme proteins) released onto the parasite surface from intracellular organelles called micronemes (MIC). The microneme adhesive repeat (MAR) domain of T. gondii MIC1 (TgMIC1) recognizes sialic acid (Sia), a key determinant on the host cell surface for invasion by this pathogen. By complementation and invasion assays, we demonstrate that TgMIC1 is one important player in Sia-dependent invasion and that another novel Sia-binding lectin, designated TgMIC13, is also involved. Using BLAST searches, we identify a family of MAR-containing proteins in enteroparasitic coccidians, a subclass of apicomplexans, including T. gondii, suggesting that all these parasites exploit sialylated glycoconjugates on host cells as determinants for enteric invasion. Furthermore, this protein family might provide a basis for the broad host cell range observed for coccidians that form tissue cysts during chronic infection. Carbohydrate microarray analyses, corroborated by structural considerations, show that TgMIC13, TgMIC1, and its homologue Neospora caninum MIC1 (NcMIC1) share a preference for alpha2-3- over alpha2-6-linked sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine sequences. However, the three lectins also display differences in binding preferences. Intense binding of TgMIC13 to alpha2-9-linked disialyl sequence reported on embryonal cells and relatively strong binding to 4-O-acetylated-Sia found on gut epithelium and binding of NcMIC1 to 6'sulfo-sialyl Lewis(x) might have implications for tissue tropism.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                22 December 2014
                : 9
                : 12
                College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China
                Instituto Butantan, Brazil
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: ZCZ XRL. Performed the experiments: ZCZ JWH MHL YXS SW LRL LXX RFY XKS. Analyzed the data: ZCZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ZCZ. Wrote the paper: ZCZ XRL.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 19
                This work was funded by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of P.R. China (No. 31372428) and a project funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Vaccination and Immunization
                Recombinant Vaccines
                Quantitative Parasitology
                Parasite Physiology
                Veterinary Parasitology
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                The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper.



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