+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Control of HIF-1α and vascular signaling in fetal lung involves cross talk between mTORC1 and the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 airway branching periodicity clock

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Lung development requires coordinated signaling between airway and vascular growth, but the link between these processes remains unclear. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) can amplify hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) vasculogenic activity through an NH 2-terminal mTOR binding (TOS) motif. We hypothesized that this mechanism coordinates vasculogenesis with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-10/FGF-receptor2b/Spry2 regulator of airway branching. First, we tested if the HIF-1α TOS motif participated in epithelial-mesenchymal vascular signaling. mTORC1 activation by insulin significantly amplified HIF-1α activity at fetal P o 2 (23 mmHg) in human bronchial epithelium (16HBE14o-) and induced vascular traits (Flk1, sprouting) in cocultured human embryonic lung mesenchyme (HEL-12469). This enhanced activation of HIF-1α by mTORC1 was abolished on expression of a HIF-1α (F99A) TOS-mutant and also suppressed vascular differentiation of HEL-12469 cocultures. Next, we determined if vasculogenesis in fetal lung involved regulation of mTORC1 by the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 pathway. Fetal airway epithelium displayed distinct mTORC1 activity in situ, and its hyperactivation by TSC1 −/− knockout induced widespread VEGF expression and disaggregation of Tie2-positive vascular bundles. FGF-10-coated beads grafted into fetal lung explants from Tie2-LacZ transgenic mice induced localized vascular differentiation in the peripheral mesenchyme. In rat fetal distal lung epithelial (FDLE) cells cultured at fetal P o 2, FGF-10 induced mTORC1 and amplified HIF-1α activity and VEGF secretion without induction of ERK1/2. This was accompanied by the formation of a complex between Spry2, the cCBL ubiquitin ligase, and the mTOR repressor, TSC2, which abolished GTPase activity directed against Rheb, the G protein inducer of mTORC1. Thus, mTORC1 links HIF-1α-driven vasculogenesis with the FGF-10/FGFR2b/Spry2 airway branching periodicity regulator.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 48

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Regulation of mTOR function in response to hypoxia by REDD1 and the TSC1/TSC2 tumor suppressor complex.

          Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of protein synthesis whose activity is modulated by a variety of signals. Energy depletion and hypoxia result in mTOR inhibition. While energy depletion inhibits mTOR through a process involving the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by LKB1 and subsequent phosphorylation of TSC2, the mechanism of mTOR inhibition by hypoxia is not known. Here we show that mTOR inhibition by hypoxia requires the TSC1/TSC2 tumor suppressor complex and the hypoxia-inducible gene REDD1/RTP801. Disruption of the TSC1/TSC2 complex through loss of TSC1 or TSC2 blocks the effects of hypoxia on mTOR, as measured by changes in the mTOR targets S6K and 4E-BP1, and results in abnormal accumulation of Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). In contrast to energy depletion, mTOR inhibition by hypoxia does not require AMPK or LKB1. Down-regulation of mTOR activity by hypoxia requires de novo mRNA synthesis and correlates with increased expression of the hypoxia-inducible REDD1 gene. Disruption of REDD1 abrogates the hypoxia-induced inhibition of mTOR, and REDD1 overexpression is sufficient to down-regulate S6K phosphorylation in a TSC1/TSC2-dependent manner. Inhibition of mTOR function by hypoxia is likely to be important for tumor suppression as TSC2-deficient cells maintain abnormally high levels of cell proliferation under hypoxia.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Cell size and invasion in TGF-β–induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition is regulated by activation of the mTOR pathway

            Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during development and cancer progression to metastasis and results in enhanced cell motility and invasion. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces EMT through Smads, leading to transcriptional regulation, and through non-Smad pathways. We observe that TGF-β induces increased cell size and protein content during EMT. This translational regulation results from activation by TGF-β of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt, leading to the phosphorylation of S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E–binding protein 1, which are direct regulators of translation initiation. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR complex 1, inhibits the TGF-β–induced translation pathway and increase in cell size without affecting the EMT phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin decreases the migratory and invasive behavior of cells that accompany TGF-β–induced EMT. The TGF-β–induced translation pathway through mTOR complements the transcription pathway through Smads. Activation of mTOR by TGF-β, which leads to increased cell size and invasion, adds to the role of TGF-β–induced EMT in cancer progression and may represent a therapeutic opportunity for rapamycin analogues in cancer.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Characterization of the human prolyl 4-hydroxylases that modify the hypoxia-inducible factor.

              The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play a central role in oxygen homeostasis. Hydroxylation of one or two critical prolines by specific hydroxylases (P4Hs) targets their HIF-alpha subunits for proteasomal degradation. By studying the three human HIF-P4Hs, we found that the longest and shortest isoenzymes have major transcripts encoding inactive polypeptides, which suggest novel regulation by alternative splicing. Recombinant HIF-P4Hs expressed in insect cells required peptides of more than 8 residues, distinct differences being found between isoenzymes. All the HIF-P4Hs hydroxylated peptides corresponding to Pro564 in HIF-1alpha, whereas a Pro402 peptide had 20-50-fold Km values for two isoenzymes but was not hydroxylated by the shortest isoenzyme at all; this difference was not explained by the two prolines being in a -Pro402-Ala- and -Pro564-Tyr-sequence. All the HIF-P4Hs-hydroxylated peptides corresponding to two of three potential sites in HIF-2alpha and one in HIF-3alpha. The Km values for O2 were slightly above its atmospheric concentration, indicating that the HIF-P4Hs are effective oxygen sensors. Small molecule inhibitors of collagen P4Hs also inhibited the HIF-P4Hs, but with distinctly different Ki values, indicating that it should be possible to develop specific inhibitors for each class of P4Hs and possibly even for the individual HIF-P4Hs.

                Author and article information

                Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol
                American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
                American Physiological Society (Bethesda, MD )
                October 2010
                9 July 2010
                1 October 2011
                : 299
                : 4
                : L455-L471
                1Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, Division of Medical Sciences, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland; and
                2Institute of Medical Genetics, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: S. C. Land, Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, Division of Medical Sciences, MACHS2 Level 4 Mailroom, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Univ. of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY Scotland, United Kingdom (e-mail: s.c.land@ 123456dundee.ac.uk ).
                Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to www.the-aps.org/publications/journals/funding_addendum_policy.htm.

                Editorial Focus

                Anatomy & Physiology

                tuberous sclerosis complex, epithelium, hypoxia, lung development, mesenchyme, rheb


                Comment on this article