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      Peripapillary fluid: Obvious and not so obvious!

      , , ,
      Survey of Ophthalmology
      Elsevier BV

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          Pachychoroid disease

          Pachychoroid is a relatively novel concept describing a phenotype characterized by attenuation of the choriocapillaris overlying dilated choroidal veins, and associated with progressive retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction and neovascularization. The emphasis in defining pachychoroid-related disorders has shifted away from simply an abnormally thick choroid (pachychoroid) toward a detailed morphological definition of a pathologic state (pachychoroid disease) with functional implications, which will be discussed in this review. Several clinical manifestations have been described to reside within the pachychoroid disease spectrum, including central serous chorioretinopathy, pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy, pachychoroid neovasculopathy, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy/aneurysmal type 1 neovascularization, focal choroidal excavation, peripapillary pachychoroid syndrome. These conditions all exhibit the characteristic choroidal alterations and are believed to represent different manifestations of a common pathogenic process. This review is based on both the current literature and the clinical experience of our individual authors, with an emphasis on the clinical and imaging features, management considerations, as well as current understanding of pathogenesis of these disorders within the context of the recent findings related to pachychoroid disease.
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            Blood-retinal barrier in hypoxic ischaemic conditions: basic concepts, clinical features and management.

            The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of the microenvironment in the retina. It consists of inner and outer components, the inner BRB (iBRB) being formed by the tight junctions between neighbouring retinal capillary endothelial cells and the outer barrier (oBRB) by tight junctions between retinal pigment epithelial cells. Astrocytes, Müller cells and pericytes contribute to the proper functioning of the iBRB. In many clinically important conditions including diabetic retinopathy, ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion, and some respiratory diseases, retinal hypoxia results in a breakdown of the iBRB. Disruption of the iBRB associated with increased vascular permeability, results in vasogenic oedema and tissue damage, with consequent adverse effects upon vision. Factors such as enhanced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), NO, oxidative stress and inflammation underlie the increased permeability of the iBRB and inhibition of these factors is beneficial. Experimental studies in our laboratory have shown melatonin to be a protective agent for the iBRB in hypoxic conditions. Although oBRB breakdown can occur in conditions such as accelerated hypertension and the toxaemia of pregnancy, both of which are associated with choroidal ischaemia and in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and is a feature of exudative (serous) retinal detachment, our studies have shown that the oBRB remains intact in hypoxic/ischaemic conditions. Clinically, anti-VEGF therapy has been shown to improve vision in diabetic maculopathy and in neovascular ARMD. The visual benefit in both conditions appears to arise from the restoration of BRB integrity with a reduction of retinal oedema.
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              Ischemic optic neuropathy.

              Ischemic optic neuropathy is one of the major causes of blindness or seriously impaired vision, yet there is disagreement as to its pathogenesis, clinical features and especially its management. This is because ischemic optic neuropathy is not one disease but a spectrum of several different types, each with its own etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and management. They cannot be lumped together. Ischemic optic neuropathy is primarily of two types: anterior (AION) and posterior (PION), involving the optic nerve head (ONH) and the rest of the optic nerve respectively. Furthermore, both AION and PION have different subtypes. AION comprises arteritic (A-AION - due to giant cell arteritis) and, non-arteritic (NA-AION - due to causes other than giant cell arteritis); NA-AION can be further classified into classical NA-AION and incipient NA-AION. PION consists of arteritic (A-PION - due to giant cell arteritis), non-arteritic (NA-PION - due to causes other than giant cell arteritis), and surgical (a complication of several systemic surgical procedures). Thus, ischemic optic neuropathy consists of six distinct types of clinical entities. NA-AION is by far the most common type and one of the most prevalent and visually crippling diseases in the middle-aged and elderly. A-AION, though less common, is an ocular emergency and requires early diagnosis and immediate treatment with systemic high dose corticosteroids to prevent further visual loss, which is entirely preventable. Controversy exists regarding the pathogenesis, clinical features and especially management of the various types of ischemic optic neuropathy because there are multiple misconceptions about its many fundamental aspects. Recently emerging information on the various factors that influence the optic nerve circulation, and also the various systemic and local risk factors which play important roles in the development of various types of ischemic optic neuropathy have given us a better understanding of their pathogeneses, clinical features and management. This knowledge should help us not only to manage them better but also to reduce their incidence. For example, clinically, the evidence that about 40% of NA-AION eyes experience spontaneous improvement in visual acuity and that systemic steroid therapy during early stages in both NA-AION and NA-PION has a significant beneficial effect for visual outcome are encouraging developments. This review discusses the current concepts on various issues related to various types of ischemic optic neuropathy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Survey of Ophthalmology
                Survey of Ophthalmology
                Elsevier BV
                00396257
                November 2023
                November 2023
                Article
                10.1016/j.survophthal.2023.11.004
                bed9396e-c110-4df7-a028-3f202c3891f8
                © 2023

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029

                https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-004

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