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An Improved Forwarding of Diverse Events with Mobile Sinks in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

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      In this paper, a novel routing strategy to cater the energy consumption and delay sensitivity issues in deep underwater wireless sensor networks is proposed. This strategy is named as ESDR: Event Segregation based Delay sensitive Routing. In this strategy sensed events are segregated on the basis of their criticality and, are forwarded to their respective destinations based on forwarding functions. These functions depend on different routing metrics like: Signal Quality Index, Localization free Signal to Noise Ratio, Energy Cost Function and Depth Dependent Function. The problem of incomparable values of previously defined forwarding functions causes uneven delays in forwarding process. Hence forwarding functions are redefined to ensure their comparable values in different depth regions. Packet forwarding strategy is based on the event segregation approach which forwards one third of the generated events (delay sensitive) to surface sinks and two third events (normal events) are forwarded to mobile sinks. Motion of mobile sinks is influenced by the relative distribution of normal nodes. We have also incorporated two different mobility patterns named as; adaptive mobility and uniform mobility for mobile sinks. The later one is implemented for collecting the packets generated by the normal nodes. These improvements ensure optimum holding time, uniform delay and in-time reporting of delay sensitive events. This scheme is compared with the existing ones and outperforms the existing schemes in terms of network lifetime, delay and throughput.

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      Most cited references 43

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      Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers

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        On the relationship between capacity and distance in an underwater acoustic communication channel

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          VAPR: Void-Aware Pressure Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks


            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Telecommunication Engineering, UET Taxila, Taxila 47080, Pakistan; waseemraza844@ (W.R.); farzana.arshad@ (F.A.)
            [2 ]Institute of Management Sciences (IMS), Peshawar 25000, Pakistan; imran.ahmed@
            [3 ]Department of Computer Engineering, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia; aabdulwaheed@
            [4 ]Information Technology Department, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia; sghouzali@
            [5 ]COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan; ianiaz@
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: nadeemjavaidqau@ ; Tel.: +92-300-579-2728
            Role: Academic Editor
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            04 November 2016
            November 2016
            : 16
            : 11
            27827905 5134509 10.3390/s16111850 sensors-16-01850
            © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (



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