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      Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk.

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          Abstract

          In the first half of this review, the authors critically evaluate existing research on the association between stressors and symptoms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. This analysis reveals (a) problems with conceptualizations of stress, (b) variability in measurement of stressors, and (c) lack of theory-driven research. To address these problems, the authors propose a general conceptual model of the relation between stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology. The authors examine basic tenets of this general model in the second half of this article by testing a specific model in which negative parenting mediates the relation between economic stressors and psychological symptoms in young people. Results generally provide support for the specific model as well as for the broader model.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Applications of structural equation modeling in psychological research.

          This chapter presents a review of applications of structural equation modeling (SEM) published in psychological research journals in recent years. We focus first on the variety of research designs and substantive issues to which SEM can be applied productively. We then discuss a number of methodological problems and issues of concern that characterize some of this literature. Although it is clear that SEM is a powerful tool that is being used to great benefit in psychological research, it is also clear that the applied SEM literature is characterized by some chronic problems and that this literature can be considerably improved by greater attention to these issues.
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            Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents.

            We propose a model of family conflict and coercion that links economic stress in family life to adolescent symptoms of internalizing and externalizing emotions and behaviors. The 180 boys and 198 girls in the study were living in intact families in the rural Midwest, an area characterized by economic decline and uncertainty. Theoretical constructs in the model were measured using both trained observer and family member reports. These adolescents and their parents were interviewed each year for 3 years during the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. Our theoretical model proposes that economic pressure experienced by parents increases parental dysphoria and marital conflict as well as conflicts between parents and children over money. High levels of spousal irritability, coupled with coercive exchanges over money matters, were expected to be associated with greater hostility in general by parents toward their children. These hostile/coercive exchanges were expected to increase the likelihood of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems. Overall, results were consistent with the proposed model. Moreover, the hypothesized processes applied equally well to the behavior of mothers and fathers, as well as sons and daughters.
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              Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Bulletin
                Psychological Bulletin
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1455
                0033-2909
                2003
                2003
                : 129
                : 3
                : 447-466
                Article
                10.1037/0033-2909.129.3.447
                12784938
                © 2003

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