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      Immune modulator therapy compared with vitrectomy for management of complicated intermediate uveitis: a prospective, randomized clinical study Translated title: Terapia com imunomodulador ou vitrectomia para manejo de uveíte intermediária complicada: estudo clínico prospectivo e randomizado

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the benefits and side effects of pars plana vitrectomy with those of systemic immune modulator therapy for patients with complicated intermediate uveitis. Methods: This prospective clinical trial enrolled patients with recurrent intermediate uveitis who exhibited minimal improvement of visual acuity, despite injections of periocular steroids. Twenty patients were randomized to the pars plana vitrectomy group or oral steroid and cyclosporine-A group (10 eyes of 10 patients per group). Follow-up was performed for 24 months to study changes in visual acuity, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy score, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography findings. Results: Visual acuity (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) significantly improved from 0.71 to 0.42 (p=0.001) in the surgical group, whereas it improved from 0.68 to 0.43 (p=0.001) in the immune modulator therapy group. Seven patients (70%) in the surgical group gained ≥2 lines, and six patients (60%) in the immune modulator therapy group gained ≥2 lines (p=0.970). Fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography studies showed that six of seven pars plana vitrectomy patients who had cystoid macular edema experienced improvement, whereas two patients with diffuse macular edema did not experience improvement. In the immune modulator therapy group, three of six patients with cystoid macular edema did not experience improvement, whereas two patients with diffuse macular edema experienced improvement. Conclusions: Pars plana vitrectomy and immune modulator therapy resulted in significant improvement in visual function in patients with persistent inflammation secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis. Despite this success, there remains a need for the determination of optimal indications for the use of each modality. Immune modulator therapy was successful for the treatment of diffuse macular edema associated with chronic intermediate uveitis, whereas pars plana vitrectomy was not.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os benefícios e efeitos co laterais da vitrectomia via pars plana com os da terapia imunomo duladora sistêmica em pacientes com uveíte intermediária complicada. Métodos: Estudo clínico prospectivo incluiu pacientes com uveíte intermediária recorrente que apresentaram melhora minima da acuidade visual, apesar das injeções perioculares de esteroides. Vinte pacientes foram randomizados para o grupo de vitrectomia via pars plana ou esteróide oral e ciclosporina A (10 olhos de 10 pacientes por grupo). O acompanhamento foi de 24 meses para estudar al te rações na acuidade visual, o escore da oftalmoscopia binocular indireta, a angiofluoresceinografia e achados na to mográfica de coerência óptica. Resultados: A acuidade visual (logaritmo do ângulo mínimo de resolução) melhorou significativamente de 0,71 para 0,42 (p=0,001) no grupo cirúrgico, enquanto melhorou de 0,68 para 0,43 (p=0,001) no grupo da terapia imunomoduladora. Sete pacientes (70%) no grupo cirúrgico ganharam ≥2 linhas e seis pacientes (60%) no grupo da terapia imunomoduladora ganharam ≥2 linhas (p=0,970). Os estudos de angiofluoresceinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica mostraram que seis dos sete pacientes da vitrectomia via pars plana que apresentaram edema macular cistóide melhoraram, enquanto dois pacientes com edema macular difuso não apresentaram melhora. No grupo da terapia imunomoduladora, três dos seis pacientes com edema macular cistoide não apresentaram melhora, enquanto dois pacientes com edema macular difuso melhoraram. Conclusões: A vitrectomia via pars plana e a terapia imunomoduladora resultaram em melhora significative da função visual dos pacientes com inflamação persistente secundária a uveíte intermediária crônica. Apesar desse sucesso, continua sendo necessário determinar as melhores indicações para o uso de cada modalidade. A terapia imunomoduladora foi bem sucedida no tratamento do edema macular difuso associado à uveíte intermediária crônica, enquanto a vitrectomia via pars plana não foi.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Standardization of vitreal inflammatory activity in intermediate and posterior uveitis.

          Standardization of observations is recognized as fundamental to clinical research. The methodology for the evaluation of anterior segment inflammatory disease has become well accepted, while the ocular inflammatory standardization of the posterior segment has not been so well described or accepted. A system for the evaluation of vitreal inflammatory activity in patients with intermediate and posterior uveitis is presented. A series of photographs representing various degrees of fundus vitreal haze is depicted. The observer examines the eye with an indirect ophthalmoscope, then chooses the photograph which most closely simulates what is being seen. This technique is rapid and its reproducibility is helpful in standardizing clinical observations.
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            Benefits of Systemic Anti-inflammatory Therapy versus Fluocinolone Acetonide Intraocular Implant for Intermediate Uveitis, Posterior Uveitis, and Panuveitis: Fifty-four-Month Results of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial and Follow-up Study.

            To compare the benefits of fluocinolone acetonide implant therapy versus systemic corticosteroid therapy supplemented (when indicated) with immunosuppression for intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, and panuveitis.
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              Cyclosporine vs tacrolimus therapy for posterior and intermediate uveitis.

              To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tacrolimus and cyclosporine therapy for noninfectious posterior segment intraocular inflammation and to evaluate their effect on peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell phenotype and activation status. Thirty-seven patients who required second-line immunosuppression for posterior segment intraocular inflammation were enrolled in this prospective randomized trial of tacrolimus vs cyclosporine therapy. The main outcome measures were visual acuity, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy score, adverse effects, and quality of life. In addition, peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell phenotype and activation status were evaluated by flow cytometry before treatment and at 2, 4, and 12 weeks using CD69, chemokine receptor (CCR4, CCR5, and CXCR3), and intracellular cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin 10) expression. Thirteen patients (68%) taking tacrolimus and 12 patients (67%) taking cyclosporine responded to treatment. Cyclosporine therapy was associated with a higher incidence of reported adverse effects. Mean arterial pressure and serum cholesterol level were significantly higher at 3 months in the cyclosporine group than the tacrolimus group. No significant difference was detected with regard to effect on quality of life or CD4(+) T-cell phenotype. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine were similar with regard to efficacy for posterior segment intraocular inflammation, but the results suggested a more favorable safety profile for tacrolimus therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                abo
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
                Arq. Bras. Oftalmol.
                Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                0004-2749
                1678-2925
                September 2020
                : 83
                : 5
                : 402-409
                Affiliations
                Benha City orgnameBenha University orgdiv1Faculty of Medicine orgdiv2Ophthalmology department Egypt
                Article
                S0004-27492020000500402 S0004-2749(20)08300500402
                10.5935/0004-2749.20200079

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 8
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