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      The pitfalls of platform comparison: DNA copy number array technologies assessed

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          Abstract

          Background

          The accurate and high resolution mapping of DNA copy number aberrations has become an important tool by which to gain insight into the mechanisms of tumourigenesis. There are various commercially available platforms for such studies, but there remains no general consensus as to the optimal platform. There have been several previous platform comparison studies, but they have either described older technologies, used less-complex samples, or have not addressed the issue of the inherent biases in such comparisons. Here we describe a systematic comparison of data from four leading microarray technologies (the Affymetrix Genome-wide SNP 5.0 array, Agilent High-Density CGH Human 244A array, Illumina HumanCNV370-Duo DNA Analysis BeadChip, and the Nimblegen 385 K oligonucleotide array). We compare samples derived from primary breast tumours and their corresponding matched normals, well-established cancer cell lines, and HapMap individuals. By careful consideration and avoidance of potential sources of bias, we aim to provide a fair assessment of platform performance.

          Results

          By performing a theoretical assessment of the reproducibility, noise, and sensitivity of each platform, notable differences were revealed. Nimblegen exhibited between-replicate array variances an order of magnitude greater than the other three platforms, with Agilent slightly outperforming the others, and a comparison of self-self hybridizations revealed similar patterns. An assessment of the single probe power revealed that Agilent exhibits the highest sensitivity. Additionally, we performed an in-depth visual assessment of the ability of each platform to detect aberrations of varying sizes. As expected, all platforms were able to identify large aberrations in a robust manner. However, some focal amplifications and deletions were only detected in a subset of the platforms.

          Conclusion

          Although there are substantial differences in the design, density, and number of replicate probes, the comparison indicates a generally high level of concordance between platforms, despite differences in the reproducibility, noise, and sensitivity. In general, Agilent tended to be the best aCGH platform and Affymetrix, the superior SNP-CGH platform, but for specific decisions the results described herein provide a guide for platform selection and study design, and the dataset a resource for more tailored comparisons.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Global variation in copy number in the human genome.

          Copy number variation (CNV) of DNA sequences is functionally significant but has yet to be fully ascertained. We have constructed a first-generation CNV map of the human genome through the study of 270 individuals from four populations with ancestry in Europe, Africa or Asia (the HapMap collection). DNA from these individuals was screened for CNV using two complementary technologies: single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays, and clone-based comparative genomic hybridization. A total of 1,447 copy number variable regions (CNVRs), which can encompass overlapping or adjacent gains or losses, covering 360 megabases (12% of the genome) were identified in these populations. These CNVRs contained hundreds of genes, disease loci, functional elements and segmental duplications. Notably, the CNVRs encompassed more nucleotide content per genome than SNPs, underscoring the importance of CNV in genetic diversity and evolution. The data obtained delineate linkage disequilibrium patterns for many CNVs, and reveal marked variation in copy number among populations. We also demonstrate the utility of this resource for genetic disease studies.
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            Fine-scale structural variation of the human genome.

            Inversions, deletions and insertions are important mediators of disease and disease susceptibility. We systematically compared the human genome reference sequence with a second genome (represented by fosmid paired-end sequences) to detect intermediate-sized structural variants >8 kb in length. We identified 297 sites of structural variation: 139 insertions, 102 deletions and 56 inversion breakpoints. Using combined literature, sequence and experimental analyses, we validated 112 of the structural variants, including several that are of biomedical relevance. These data provide a fine-scale structural variation map of the human genome and the requisite sequence precision for subsequent genetic studies of human disease.
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              A high-resolution survey of deletion polymorphism in the human genome.

              Recent work has shown that copy number polymorphism is an important class of genetic variation in human genomes. Here we report a new method that uses SNP genotype data from parent-offspring trios to identify polymorphic deletions. We applied this method to data from the International HapMap Project to produce the first high-resolution population surveys of deletion polymorphism. Approximately 100 of these deletions have been experimentally validated using comparative genome hybridization on tiling-resolution oligonucleotide microarrays. Our analysis identifies a total of 586 distinct regions that harbor deletion polymorphisms in one or more of the families. Notably, we estimate that typical individuals are hemizygous for roughly 30-50 deletions larger than 5 kb, totaling around 550-750 kb of euchromatic sequence across their genomes. The detected deletions span a total of 267 known and predicted genes. Overall, however, the deleted regions are relatively gene-poor, consistent with the action of purifying selection against deletions. Deletion polymorphisms may well have an important role in the genetics of complex traits; however, they are not directly observed in most current gene mapping studies. Our new method will permit the identification of deletion polymorphisms in high-density SNP surveys of trio or other family data.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central
                1471-2164
                2009
                8 December 2009
                : 10
                : 588
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hopsital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB20XZ, UK
                [2 ]Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB20RE, UK
                [3 ]Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, 920 E 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
                Article
                1471-2164-10-588
                10.1186/1471-2164-10-588
                2797821
                19995423
                Copyright ©2009 Curtis et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research article

                Genetics

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