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      Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation and Ring Annuloplasty Repair

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          Abstract

          Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) primarily arises from asymmetric dilation of the tricuspid annulus in the setting of right ventricular dysfunction and enlargement in response to left-sided myocardial and valvular abnormalities. Even if the TR is not severe at the time of mitral valve surgery, it can worsen and even appear late after successful mitral valve surgery, which portends a poor prognosis. Despite data demonstrating inferior outcomes in the presence of residual TR, surgical repair for functional TR remains underused. Acceptance of TR, in the presence of tricuspid annular dilation, may be unacceptable. Surgical repair should consist of placement of a rigid or semirigid annular ring, which has been shown to provide superior durability as compared with suture and flexible band techniques. Finally, percutaneous annuloplasty for correction of functional TR may allow treatment of patients with recurrent TR at high risk of reoperation.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Tricuspid valve repair: durability and risk factors for failure.

          To compare durability of tricuspid valve annuloplasty techniques, identify risk factors for repair failure, and characterize survival, reoperation, and functional class of surviving patients. From 1990 to 1999, 790 patients (mean age 65 +/- 12 years, 51% New York Heart Association functional class III or IV, and mean right ventricular systolic pressure 56 +/- 18 mm Hg) underwent tricuspid valve annuloplasty for functional regurgitation using 4 techniques: Carpentier-Edwards semi-rigid ring, Cosgrove-Edwards flexible band, De Vega procedure, and customized semicircular Peri-Guard annuloplasty. Of these patients, 89% had concomitant mitral valve surgery. A total of 2245 follow-up transthoracic echocardiograms were retrieved. Tricuspid regurgitation was analyzed, and risk factors for worsening regurgitation were identified, by multivariable ordinal longitudinal methods. Tricuspid regurgitation 1 week after annuloplasty was 3+ or 4+ in 14% of patients. Regurgitation severity was stable across time with the Carpentier-Edwards ring (P =.7), increased slowly with the Cosgrove-Edwards band (P =.05), and rose more rapidly with the De Vega (P =.002) and Peri-Guard (P =.0009) procedures. Risk factors for worsening regurgitation included higher preoperative regurgitation grade, poor left ventricular function, permanent pacemaker, and repair type other than ring annuloplasty. Right ventricular systolic pressure, ring size, preoperative New York Heart Association functional class, and concomitant surgery were not risk factors. Tricuspid reoperation was rare (3% at 8 years), and hospital mortality after reoperation was 37%. Tricuspid valve annuloplasty did not consistently eliminate functional regurgitation, and across time regurgitation increased importantly after Peri-Guard and De Vega annuloplasties. Therefore, these repair techniques should be abandoned, and transtricuspid pacing leads should be replaced with epicardial leads.
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            Influence of hospital procedural volume on care process and mortality for patients undergoing elective surgery for mitral regurgitation.

            Few studies have examined the procedural volume-outcome relationship for heart valve surgery. None have examined process of care factors that may be mediators of this association. This was a retrospective review of outcomes for 13,614 patients having elective surgery for mitral regurgitation between 2000 and 2003 in 575 North American centers participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Cardiac Database. Hospital annual mitral valve volume varied widely from 22 cases per year in the lowest-volume quartile to 394 in the highest. Unadjusted mortality rates decreased from 3.08% in the lowest-volume category to 1.11% in the highest-volume category. The risk-adjusted odds ratio for mortality in the highest-volume category compared with the lowest was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.82). The rates of mitral valve repair increased from 47.7% in the lowest-volume quartile to 77.4% in high-volume hospitals (P 65 years rose from 59% in the lowest-volume quartile to 75% in the highest-volume quartile (P=0.0002). The association between volume and mortality was still significant but attenuated when the risk adjustment was modified to adjust for mitral valve repair versus replacement. Hospital procedural volume was associated with higher frequency of valve repair, higher frequency of prosthetic valve usage in elderly patients, and lower adjusted operative mortality. Differences in care process may contribute to improved outcomes in higher-volume centers.
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              Surgical management of secondary tricuspid valve regurgitation: annulus, commissure, or leaflet procedure?

              Techniques employed today concomitantly with left-sided heart valve surgery address secondary tricuspid valve regurgitation at 3 anatomic levels-annulus, commissure, and leaflet-although success of these alone or in combination in eliminating tricuspid regurgitation is uncertain. Our objective was to assess the comparative effectiveness of these techniques in reducing or eliminating secondary tricuspid regurgitation. From 1990 to 2008, 2277 patients underwent tricuspid valve procedures for secondary tricuspid regurgitation concomitantly with mitral (n = 1527, 67%), aortic (n = 180, 7.9%), or combined (n = 570, 25%) valve surgery. These included annulus (flexible prosthesis [n = 1052, 46%], rigid prosthesis [standard = 387, 3-dimensional = 197; 26%], Peri-Guard annuloplasty [Synovis Surgical Innovations, St Paul, Minn; n = 185, 8.1%], and De Vega suture [n = 129, 5.7%]), commissure (Kay [n = 248, 11%]), and leaflet (edge-to-edge suture [n = 79, 3.5%] +/- annulus or commissural) procedures. A total of 4745 postoperative transthoracic echocardiograms in 1965 patients were analyzed. By 3 months after surgery, only 32% of patients overall had no tricuspid regurgitation. However, by 5 years, this had decreased to 22%, and 3+/4+ tricuspid regurgitation had increased from 11% at 3 months to 17%. Patients with rigid ring annuloplasty alone, either standard or 3-dimensional, had the least increase of 3+/4+ tricuspid regurgitation (to 12% at 5 years) compared with either a commissural or leaflet procedure. Rigid prosthetic ring annuloplasty, standard or 3-dimensional, provides early and sustained reduction of tricuspid regurgitation secondary to left-sided valve disease without need for an additional leaflet procedure. However, results are imperfect, possibly because other anatomic levels (subvalvular, papillary muscle, and right ventricular) contributing to its pathophysiology are unaddressed. Copyright 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CVIA
                Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications
                CVIA
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                2009-8782
                2009-8618
                January 2018
                March 2018
                : 2
                : 4
                : 451-457
                Affiliations
                1Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Steven F. Bolling, MD, Department of Cardiac Surgery, 5144 Cardiovascular Center, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-5864, USA, Tel.: +1-734-9364981, Fax: +1-734-7642255, E-mail: sbolling@ 123456umich.edu
                Article
                cvia20170025
                10.15212/CVIA.2017.0025
                Copyright © 2018 Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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