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      Antibiotic Dosing in Critically Ill Adult Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

      , , ,
      Clinical Infectious Diseases
      University of Chicago Press

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          Abstract

          Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is now commonly used as a means of support for critically ill patients with renal failure. No recent comprehensive guidelines exist that provide antibiotic dosing recommendations for adult patients receiving CRRT. Doses used in intermittent hemodialysis cannot be directly applied to these patients, and antibiotic pharmacokinetics are different than those in patients with normal renal function. We reviewed the literature for studies involving the following antibiotics frequently used to treat critically ill adult patients receiving CRRT: vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, nafcillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B (deoxycholate and lipid formulations), and acyclovir. We used these data, as well as clinical experience, to make recommendations for antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving CRRT.

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          Most cited references54

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          Colistin: the revival of polymyxins for the management of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections.

          The emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria and the lack of new antibiotics to combat them have led to the revival of polymyxins, an old class of cationic, cyclic polypeptide antibiotics. Polymyxin B and polymyxin E (colistin) are the 2 polymyxins used in clinical practice. Most of the reintroduction of polymyxins during the last few years is related to colistin. The polymyxins are active against selected gram-negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species. These drugs have been used extensively worldwide for decades for local use. However, parenteral use of these drugs was abandoned approximately 20 years ago in most countries, except for treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis, because of reports of common and serious nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Recent studies of patients who received intravenous polymyxins for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii infections of various types, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and urinary tract infections, have led to the conclusion that these antibiotics have acceptable effectiveness and considerably less toxicity than was reported in old studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                University of Chicago Press
                1058-4838
                1537-6591
                October 15 2005
                October 15 2005
                : 41
                : 8
                : 1159-1166
                Article
                10.1086/444500
                16163635
                bf152b5b-11f8-44ac-8629-062a86926a2d
                © 2005
                History

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