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      Current evidence on vitamin D deficiency and kidney transplant: What’s new?

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          The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND ANALYSES: MEDLINE review was conducted through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data were available to combine, meta-analyses were performed, and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented. Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM prevalence, 0.36 (0.16-0.80) among nonblacks for highest vs. lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 (0.57-0.89) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. There are also inverse associations with incident type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM incidence, 0.82 (0.72-0.93) for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of type 2 DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders, whereas intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium, or did post hoc analyses. Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia, whereas combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing glucose metabolism.
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            Guidelines for preventing and treating vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency revisited.

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              Proceedings from an international consensus meeting on posttransplantation diabetes mellitus: recommendations and future directions.

              A consensus meeting was held in Vienna on September 8-9, 2013, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic challenges surrounding development of diabetes mellitus after transplantation. The International Expert Panel comprised 24 transplant nephrologists, surgeons, diabetologists and clinical scientists, which met with the aim to review previous guidelines in light of emerging clinical data and research. Recommendations from the consensus discussions are provided in this article. Although the meeting was kidney-centric, reflecting the expertise present, these recommendations are likely to be relevant to other solid organ transplant recipients. Our recommendations include: terminology revision from new-onset diabetes after transplantation to posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM), exclusion of transient posttransplant hyperglycemia from PTDM diagnosis, expansion of screening strategies (incorporating postprandial glucose and HbA1c) and opinion-based guidance regarding pharmacological therapy in light of recent clinical evidence. Future research in the field was discussed with the aim of establishing collaborative working groups to address unresolved questions. These recommendations are opinion-based and intended to serve as a template for planned guidelines update, based on systematic and graded literature review, on the diagnosis and management of PTDM.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
                Rev Endocr Metab Disord
                Springer Nature
                1389-9155
                1573-2606
                September 2017
                March 9 2017
                September 2017
                : 18
                : 3
                : 323-334
                Article
                10.1007/s11154-017-9418-z
                © 2017

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