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      Wellbeing and resilience: mechanisms of transmission of health and risk in parents with complex mental health problems and their offspring—The WARM Study

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The WARM study is a longitudinal cohort study following infants of mothers with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and control from pregnancy to infant 1 year of age.

          Background

          Children of parents diagnosed with complex mental health problems including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, are at increased risk of developing mental health problems compared to the general population. Little is known regarding the early developmental trajectories of infants who are at ultra-high risk and in particular the balance of risk and protective factors expressed in the quality of early caregiver-interaction.

          Methods/Design

          We are establishing a cohort of pregnant women with a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and a non-psychiatric control group. Factors in the parents, the infant and the social environment will be evaluated at 1, 4, 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction.

          Discussion

          The study will provide data on very early risk developmental status and associated psychosocial risk factors, which will be important for developing targeted preventive interventions for infants of parents with severe mental disorder.

          Trial registration

          NCT02306551, date of registration November 12, 2014.

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          Most cited references101

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          Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

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            Stress-reactivity in psychosis: evidence for an affective pathway to psychosis.

            This paper will review a series of studies using the Experience Sampling Method that suggest that altered sensitivity to stress is an endophenotype for psychosis. The Experience Sampling Method is a structured diary technique allowing the assessment of emotional reactivity to stressors occurring in normal daily life. Elevated emotional reactivity to stress was found in subjects vulnerable to psychosis, suggesting that affective responses to stressors in the flow of daily life are an indicator of genetic and/or environmental liability to psychosis. Indeed, the small stressors in daily life associated with affective responses also predict more intense moment-to-moment variation of subtle positive psychotic experiences. Increased emotional reactivity was found to be independent from cognitive impairments, and argued to constitute evidence of an affective pathway to psychosis that may underlie a more episodic, reactive, good-outcome type of psychosis. Evidence for this hypothesis was found in data suggesting that the experience of stressful life events and early trauma were associated with increased stress-sensitivity, and that women were more likely to display elevated stress-reactivity. These findings are discussed in the light of recent biological and psychological mechanisms.
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              • Article: not found

              The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Susanne.Harder@psy.ku.dk
                Kirstine.Agnete.Davidsen@rsyd.dk
                amacbeth@exseed.ed.ac.uk
                thlan@sund.ku.dk
                Helen.Minnis@glasgow.ac.uk
                Marianne.Andersen1@rsyd.dk
                Jenna-Marie.Lundy@glasgow.ac.uk
                maja.hansen@psy.ku.dk
                christopher.trier@psy.ku.dk
                katrine.rohder@psy.ku.dk
                Andrew.Gumley@glasgow.ac.uk
                Journal
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-244X
                9 December 2015
                9 December 2015
                2015
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [ ]Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Odense, Research Unit, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Middelfart, Denmark
                [ ]University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
                [ ]School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland UK
                [ ]Department of Public Health, Section of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [ ]Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland UK
                [ ]Psychiatric Research Unit, Psychiatry, Region Zealand, Roskilde, Denmark
                [ ]Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                Article
                692
                10.1186/s12888-015-0692-6
                4674908
                bf2e1532-519f-4e88-80a3-108c71566a21
                © Harder et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FKK Danish Council for Independent Research | Humanities
                Award ID: Grant Reference No: DFF – 1319-00103
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Psychiatric Research Foundation in the Region of Southern Denmark
                Categories
                Study Protocol
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                high-risk infants,risk development,schizophrenia,bipolar disorder,depression,cohort study,attachment,stress-sensitivity,caregiving

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