+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Comparison of three different sedative-anaesthetic protocols (ketamine, ketamine-medetomidine and alphaxalone) in common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus)

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Handling of common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus) usually requires chemical restraint. Ketamine has been associated with muscle damage in primates, while common marmosets, compared to other primates, additionally display an exceptional high sensitivity to ketamine-associated side-effects. Notably, muscle twitching movements of limbs and hands, and a marked increase in salivation are observed. We investigated two alternative intramuscular (i.m.) immobilisation protocols against ketamine (50 mg/kg; protocol 1) in a double-blind randomised crossover study in ten healthy adult common marmosets for use as a safe reliable, short-term immobilisation and sedation. These protocols comprised: alphaxalone (12 mg/kg; protocol 2) and 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.50 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 2.5 mg/kg atipamezole; protocol 3A). Following completion and unblinding, the project was extended with an additional protocol (3B), comprising 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 0.25 mg/kg atipamezole, twice with 35 min interval).


          All protocols in this study provided rapid onset (induction times <5 min) of immobilisation and sedation. Duration of immobilisation was 31.23 ± 22.39 min, 53.72 ± 13.08 min, 19.73 ± 5.74 min, and 22.78 ± 22.37 min for protocol 1, 2, 3A, and 3B, respectively. Recovery times were 135.84 ± 39.19 min, 55.79 ± 11.02 min, 405.46 ± 29.81 min, and 291.91 ± 80.34 min, respectively. Regarding the quality, and reliability (judged by pedal withdrawal reflex, palpebral reflex and muscle tension) of all protocols, protocol 2 was the most optimal. Monitored vital parameters were within clinically acceptable limits during all protocols and there were no fatalities. Indication of muscle damage as assessed by AST, LDH and CK values was most prominent elevated in protocol 1, 3A, and 3B.


          We conclude that intramuscular administration of 12 mg/kg alphaxalone to common marmosets is preferred over other protocols studied. Protocol 2 resulted in at least comparable immobilisation quality with acceptable and less frequent side effects and superior recovery quality. In all protocols, supportive therapy, such as external heat support, remains mandatory. Notably, an unacceptable long recovery period in both ketamine/medetomidine protocols (subsequently reversed with atipamezole) was observed, showing that α-2 adrenoreceptor agonists in the used dose and dosing regime is not the first choice for sedation in common marmosets in a standard research setting.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 31

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A review of the physiological effects of alpha2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice.

           M Sinclair (2003)
          Medetomidine is a relatively new sedative analgesic drug that is approved for use in dogs in Canada. It is the most potent alpha2-adrenoreceptor available for clinical use in veterinary medicine and stimulates receptors centrally to produce dose-dependent sedation and analgesia. Significant dose sparing properties occur when medetomidine is combined with other anesthetic agents correlating with the high affinity of this drug to the alpha2-adrenoreceptor. Hypoventilation occurs with medetomidine sedation in dogs; however, respiratory depression becomes most significant when given in combination with other sedative or injectable agents. The typical negative cardiovascular effects produced with other alpha2-agonists (bradycardia, bradyarrhythmias, a reduction in cardiac output, hypertension +/- hypotension) are also produced with medetomidine, warranting precautions when it is used and necessitating appropriate patient selection (young, middle-aged healthy animals). While hypotension may occur, sedative doses of medetomidine typically raise the blood pressure, due to the effect on peripheral alpha2-adrenoreceptors. Anticholinergic premedication has been recommended with alpha2-agonists to prevent bradyarrhythmias and, potentially, the reduction in cardiac output produced by these agents; however, current research does not demonstrate a clear improvement in cardiovascular function. Negatively, the anticholinergic induced increase in heart rate potentiates the alpha2-agonist mediated hypertension and may increase myocardial oxygen tension, demand, and workload. Overall, reversal with the specific antagonist atipamezole is recommended when significant cardiorespiratory complications occur. Other physiological effects of medetomidine sedation include; vomiting, increased urine volumes, changes to endocrine function and uterine activity, decreased intestinal motility, decreased intraocular pressure and potentially hypothermia, muscle twitching, and cyanosis. Decreased doses of medetomidine, compared with the recommended label dose, should be considered in combination with other sedatives to enhance sedation and analgesia and lower the duration and potential severity of the negative cardiovascular side effects. The literature was searched in Pubmed, Medline, Agricola, CAB direct, and Biological Sciences.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Ketamine alone and combined with diazepam or xylazine in laboratory animals: a 10 year experience.

            Ketamine alone or supplemented by diazepam or xylazine has been used and evaluated as an anaesthetic in a range of animals including snakes, tortoises, lizards, birds, ferrets, dogs, cats, pigs, sheep, goats, non-human primates, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, mice and hamsters. Ketamine alone has severe limitations in most species, but in combination has proved valuable.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Dark skin decreases the accuracy of pulse oximeters at low oxygen saturation: the effects of oximeter probe type and gender.

              Pulse oximetry may overestimate arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (Sao2) at low Sao2 levels in individuals with darkly pigmented skin, but other factors, such as gender and oximeter probe type, remain less studied. We studied the relationship between skin pigment and oximeter accuracy in 36 subjects (19 males, 17 females) of a range of skin tones. Clip-on type sensors and adhesive/disposable finger probes for the Masimo Radical, Nellcor N-595, and Nonin 9700 were studied. Semisupine subjects breathed air-nitrogen-CO2 mixtures via a mouthpiece to rapidly achieve 2- to 3-min stable plateaus of Sao2. Comparisons of Sao2 measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) with Sao2 (by Radiometer OSM-3) were used in a multivariate model to assess the source of errors. The mean bias (Spo2 - Sao2) for the 70%-80% saturation range was 2.61% for the Masimo Radical with clip-on sensor, -1.58% for the Radical with disposable sensor, 2.59% for the Nellcor clip, 3.6% for the Nellcor disposable, -0.60% for the Nonin clip, and 2.43% for the Nonin disposable. Dark skin increased bias at low Sao2; greater bias was seen with adhesive/disposable sensors than with the clip-on types. Up to 10% differences in saturation estimates were found among different instruments in dark-skinned subjects at low Sao2. Multivariate analysis indicated that Sao2 level, sensor type, skin color, and gender were predictive of errors in Spo2 estimates at low Sao2 levels. The data suggest that clinically important bias should be considered when monitoring patients with saturations below 80%, especially those with darkly pigmented skin; but further study is needed to confirm these observations in the relevant populations.

                Author and article information

                BMC Vet Res
                BMC Vet. Res
                BMC Veterinary Research
                BioMed Central
                11 June 2013
                : 9
                : 113
                [1 ]Animal Science Department, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Lange Kleiweg 161, 2288 GJ, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, Yalelaan 106, 3584 CM, Utrecht, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Parasitology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Lange Kleiweg 161, 2288 GJ, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
                Copyright ©2013 Bakker et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article


                Comment on this article