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      Biodiversity of vertebrates in Argentina: patterns of richness, endemism and conservation status

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          Abstract

          Optimising conservation efforts requires an accurate record of the extant species as well as their geographic distributions. Nevertheless, most current conservation strategies start from an incomplete biodiversity inventory. Argentina has an extraordinary diversity of species, however, until now an updated inventory of its fauna has not been carried out. In this context, the main objective of this work is to present the results of the first national inventory of vertebrate species. Experts from each major vertebrate taxonomic group assembled and compiled its respective inventory. The information gathered included taxonomic rank, conservation status, endemism and geographic distribution. Species richness and representativeness were calculated for each taxonomic group, distinguishing between native, endemic and exotic, for each Argentinian province. Our results show Argentina harbours 3,303 species: 574 marine fish, 561 freshwater fish, 177 amphibians, 450 reptiles, 1,113 birds, and 428 mammals. Native species constitute 98.1% of the total taxa. The results achieved were spatially represented showing a pattern of higher richness from north to south and from east to west. Species considered as threatened account for 17.8% and 15.2% are endemic. There are five Extinct species. These results provide key information on developing strategies and public policies at the national and provincial levels and constitute a tool for the management and conservation of biodiversity.

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          Fishes of the World

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            The role of taxonomy in species conservation.

            Taxonomy and species conservation are often assumed to be completely interdependent activities. However, a shortage of taxonomic information and skills, and confusion over where the limits to 'species' should be set, both cause problems for conservationists. There is no simple solution because species lists used for conservation planning (e.g. threatened species, species richness estimates, species covered by legislation) are often also used to determine which units should be the focus of conservation actions; this despite the fact that the two processes have such different goals and information needs. Species conservation needs two kinds of taxonomic solution: (i) a set of practical rules to standardize the species units included on lists; and (ii) an approach to the units chosen for conservation recovery planning which recognizes the dynamic nature of natural systems and the differences from the units in listing processes that result. These solutions are well within our grasp but require a new kind of collaboration among conservation biologists, taxonomists and legislators, as well as an increased resource of taxonomists with relevant and high-quality skills.
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              What we know and don't know about Earth's missing biodiversity.

              Estimates of non-microbial diversity on Earth range from 2 million to over 50 million species, with great uncertainties in numbers of insects, fungi, nematodes, and deep-sea organisms. We summarize estimates for major taxa, the methods used to obtain them, and prospects for further discoveries. Major challenges include frequent synonymy, the difficulty of discriminating certain species by morphology alone, and the fact that many undiscovered species are small, difficult to find, or have small geographic ranges. Cryptic species could be numerous in some taxa. Novel techniques, such as DNA barcoding, new databases, and crowd-sourcing, could greatly accelerate the rate of species discovery. Such advances are timely. Most missing species probably live in biodiversity hotspots, where habitat destruction is rife, and so current estimates of extinction rates from known species are too low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2022
                04 February 2022
                : 1085
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fundación de Historia Natural Félix de Azara. Centro de Ciencias Naturales, Ambientales y Antropológicas, Universidad Maimónides. Hidalgo 775 7mo piso, CP 1405, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [2 ] Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental (IIIA), CONICET-UNSAM, Campus Miguelete, 25 de Mayo y Francia, CP 1650, San Martín, Argentina
                [3 ] Grupo de Biotaxonomía Morfológica y Molecular de Peces (BIMOPE), Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata- CONICET, Deán Funes 3350, CP 7600, Mar del Plata, Argentina
                [4 ] Departamento Científico, Aves Argentinas - Asociación Ornitológica del Plata. Matheu 1246/8, CP 1249, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [5 ] Departamento Análisis de Sistemas Complejos. Fundación Bariloche. EDGE of Existence affiliated. Zoological Society of London, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP 8400, Bariloche, Argentina
                [6 ] División Mastozoología, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Av. Angel Gallardo 470, CP 1405, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [7 ] Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Anexo Museo, Laboratorio 105. Calles 122 y 60, CP 1900, La Plata, Argentina
                [8 ] Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE, CONICET-UNLP), Boulevard 120 s/n entre Av. 60 y Calle 64, CP 1900, La Plata, Argentina
                [9 ] Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3550, CP 7602, Mar del Plata, Argentina
                [10 ] Instituto de Vertebrados, Unidad Ejecutora Lillo (CONICET- Fundación Miguel Lillo), Miguel Lillo 251, CP 4000, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina
                [11 ] Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución de Buenos Aires (IEGEBA-FCEN-UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, Güiraldes 2160, CP 1428, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [12 ] Unidad Ejecutora Lillo (CONICET- Fundación Miguel Lillo), Miguel Lillo 251 CP 4000, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina
                [13 ] Museo Regional de Ciencias Naturales "A. Scasso", San Nicolás de los Arroyos, Don Bosco 580, CP 2900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [14 ] Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina
                [15 ] Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Paseo del Bosque s/n, CP 1900, La Plata, Argentina
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Valeria Bauni ( valeria.bauni@ 123456fundacionazara.org.ar )

                Academic editor: Aaron Bauer

                Article
                76033
                10.3897/zookeys.1085.76033
                8837513
                bf3c4980-a0bd-471c-a57e-2414749b6359
                Valeria Bauni, Claudio Bertonatti, Adrián Giacchino, Facundo Schivo, Ezequiel Mabragaña, Ignacio Roesler, Juan José Rosso, Pablo Teta, Jorge D. Williams, Agustin M. Abba, Guillermo H. Cassini, María Berta Cousseau, David A. Flores, Damián M. Fortunato, María Emilia Giusti, Jorge Pablo Jayat, Jorge Liotta, Sergio Lucero, Tomás Martínez Aguirre, Javier A. Pereira, Jorge Crisci

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Vertebrata
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Conservation Biology
                Species Inventories
                Argentina

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