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      Anti-predator behaviour of Rhinella major (Müller and Hellmich 1936), with insights into the Rhinella granulosa group

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      Herpetozoa

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          In anurans, the different types of anti-predator behaviour have been documented in isolation, but some species have shown synergistic strategies in different situations. The display of these types of behaviour may be related to the types of predators in the habitat, which boost defensive responses in their prey. However, most reports are mostly opportunistic and punctual observations, not systematic. Here, we report the occurrence of anti-predator behaviour in the toad Rhinella major (Müller and Hellmich 1936) (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) in the face of different handling modes. Probably the disturbance caused by handling had elicited a predator deterrence response in the individual, causing it to rapidly exhibit such behaviour. These conditions are discussed along with an overview of anti-predator behaviour in species of the R. granulosa group and we re-interpreted these strategies for two species in the group.

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          Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil

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            Is death-feigning adaptive? Heritable variation in fitness difference of death-feigning behaviour

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              A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians.

              The extant amphibians are one of the most diverse radiations of terrestrial vertebrates (>6800 species). Despite much recent focus on their conservation, diversification, and systematics, no previous phylogeny for the group has contained more than 522 species. However, numerous studies with limited taxon sampling have generated large amounts of partially overlapping sequence data for many species. Here, we combine these data and produce a novel estimate of extant amphibian phylogeny, containing 2871 species (∼40% of the known extant species) from 432 genera (∼85% of the ∼500 currently recognized extant genera). Each sampled species contains up to 12,712 bp from 12 genes (three mitochondrial, nine nuclear), with an average of 2563 bp per species. This data set provides strong support for many groups recognized in previous studies, but it also suggests non-monophyly for several currently recognized families, particularly in hyloid frogs (e.g., Ceratophryidae, Cycloramphidae, Leptodactylidae, Strabomantidae). To correct these and other problems, we provide a revised classification of extant amphibians for taxa traditionally delimited at the family and subfamily levels. This new taxonomy includes several families not recognized in current classifications (e.g., Alsodidae, Batrachylidae, Rhinodermatidae, Odontophrynidae, Telmatobiidae), but which are strongly supported and important for avoiding non-monophyly of current families. Finally, this study provides further evidence that the supermatrix approach provides an effective strategy for inferring large-scale phylogenies using the combined results of previous studies, despite many taxa having extensive missing data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Herpetozoa
                Herpetozoa
                Pensoft Publishers
                2682-955X
                1013-4425
                September 23 2021
                September 23 2021
                : 34
                : 195-200
                Article
                10.3897/herpetozoa.34.e66909
                © 2021

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