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      Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats

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          Abstract

          AIMS:

          It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters.

          SETTING AND DESIGN:

          It is a prospective study designed in vitro.

          MATERIALS AND METHODS:

          A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups ( n = 10): (1) control group and (2) experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance.

          STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:

          Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test.

          RESULTS:

          The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group ( P < 0.05). There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration.

          CONCLUSIONS:

          It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.

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          Most cited references26

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          Effects of heat stress on mammalian reproduction.

          Heat stress can have large effects on most aspects of reproductive function in mammals. These include disruptions in spermatogenesis and oocyte development, oocyte maturation, early embryonic development, foetal and placental growth and lactation. These deleterious effects of heat stress are the result of either the hyperthermia associated with heat stress or the physiological adjustments made by the heat-stressed animal to regulate body temperature. Many effects of elevated temperature on gametes and the early embryo involve increased production of reactive oxygen species. Genetic adaptation to heat stress is possible both with respect to regulation of body temperature and cellular resistance to elevated temperature.
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            Membrane fluidity predicts the outcome of cryopreservation of human spermatozoa.

            Semen cryopreservation is an important procedure in the treatment of human infertility. However, the ability of spermatozoa to survive freeze/thaw processes varies between patients. Cryopreservation-induced stress may result in membrane injury with consequent loss of sperm motility and viability. We investigated the relationship between the physico-chemical state of the human sperm membranes and their tolerance to cryopreservation. Conventional characteristics of 20 semen samples were analysed before and after cryopreservation as well as their membrane fluidity assessed by measuring the fluorescence polarization anisotropy, which is inversely proportional to the fluidity. Correlation between fluidity and post-thaw recoveries of motile and viable spermatozoa were examined. Results showed that membrane anisotropy markedly varies between patients. In cryopreserved spermatozoa, anisotropy values were significantly higher than in fresh spermatozoa. Furthermore, recovery of motile and viable spermatozoa after freeze/thaw was strongly correlated with anisotropy of fresh spermatozoa (P < 0.05). The higher the membrane fluidity was before freezing, the better was the response of spermatozoa to cryopreservation. The results indicate that the freeze/thaw process results in a rigidifying effect on the sperm membrane and suggest that sperm adaptability to freeze/thaw-induced stress could be dependent on their initial membrane fluidity. The latter finding has practical implications for predicting the response of spermatozoa following freezing and thawing and for improving the recovery of viable spermatozoa.
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              Stress hormones in the research on cardiovascular effects of noise.

              W Babisch (2015)
              In recent years, the measurement of stress hormones including adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol has been widely used to study the possible increase in cardiovascular risk of noise exposed subjects. Since endocrine changes manifesting in physiological disorders come first in the chain of cause-effect for perceived noise stress, noise effects in stress hormones may therefore be detected in populations after relatively short periods of noise exposure. This makes stress hormones a useful stress indicator, but regarding a risk assessment, the interpretation of endocrine noise effects is often a qualitative one rather than a quantitative one. Stress hormones can be used in noise studies to study mechanisms of physiological reactions to noise and to identify vulnerable groups. A review is given about findings in stress hormones from laboratory, occupational and environmental studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Hum Reprod Sci
                J Hum Reprod Sci
                JHRS
                Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0974-1208
                1998-4766
                Jan-Apr 2012
                : 5
                : 1
                : 48-51
                Affiliations
                [1]Physiology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
                [1 ]Department of Biology, Payamenour University, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Mr. Ghasem Saki, Department of Anatomical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Joundishapour University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran. E-mail: ghasemsaki@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                JHRS-5-48
                10.4103/0974-1208.97801
                3409920
                22870015
                bf53466a-9b4f-4764-9839-92a857c102b1
                Copyright: © Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 07 June 2011
                : 17 November 2011
                : 07 March 2012
                Categories
                Original Article

                Human biology
                pregnancy,infertility,hormone,pollution
                Human biology
                pregnancy, infertility, hormone, pollution

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