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      Pseudechiniscus in Japan: re-description of Pseudechiniscus asper Abe et al., 1998 and description of Pseudechiniscus shintai sp. nov.

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The classification and identification of species within the genus Pseudechiniscus Thulin, 1911 has been considered almost a Sisyphean work due to an extremely high homogeneity of its members. Only recently have several contributions made progress in the taxonomy feasible through their detailed analyses of morphology and, crucially, by the re-description of the ancient, nominal species P. suillus (Ehrenberg, 1853). Herein, we focus on the Japanese representatives of this genus: P. asper, a rare species originally described from Hokkaido, and a new species P. shintai. Both taxa belong to the widespread suillus-facettalis complex. Detailed descriptions entailing DNA barcoding of four markers and illustrations of the ventral pillar patterns are indispensable for an accurate delineation of species within this genus.

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          On the inappropriate use of Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) divergences in the DNA-barcoding literature

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            MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda.

            Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations--comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning--we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods.
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              Phylogenies without roots? A plea for the use of vouchers in molecular phylogenetic studies.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                September 01 2020
                September 01 2020
                : 96
                : 2
                : 527-536
                Article
                10.3897/zse.96.53324
                © 2020

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