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      Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α Controls the HepaticCYP4AInduction Adaptive Response to Starvation and Diabetes

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          Most cited references 34

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          Targeted disruption of the alpha isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene in mice results in abolishment of the pleiotropic effects of peroxisome proliferators.

          To gain insight into the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms in rodents, we disrupted the ligand-binding domain of the alpha isoform of mouse PPAR (mPPAR alpha) by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the mutation lack expression of mPPAR alpha protein and yet are viable and fertile and exhibit no detectable gross phenotypic defects. Remarkably, these animals do not display the peroxisome proliferator pleiotropic response when challenged with the classical peroxisome proliferators, clofibrate and Wy-14,643. Following exposure to these chemicals, hepatomegaly, peroxisome proliferation, and transcriptional-activation of target genes were not observed. These results clearly demonstrate that mPPAR alpha is the major isoform required for mediating the pleiotropic response resulting from the actions of peroxisome proliferators. mPPAR alpha-deficient animals should prove useful to further investigate the role of this receptor in hepatocarcinogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, and cell cycle regulation.
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            Fatty acids activate a chimera of the clofibric acid-activated receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor.

            Peroxisome proliferators such as clofibric acid, nafenopin, and WY-14,643 have been shown to activate PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily. We have cloned the cDNA from the rat that is homologous to that from the mouse [Issemann, I. & Green, S. (1990) Nature (London) 347, 645-650], which encodes a 97% similar protein with a particularly well-conserved putative ligand-binding domain. To search for physiologically occurring activators, we established a transcriptional transactivation assay by stably expressing in CHO cells a chimera of rat PPAR and the human glucocorticoid receptor that activates expression of the placental alkaline phosphatase reporter gene under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. Testing of compounds related to lipid metabolism or peroxisomal proliferation revealed that 150 microM concentrations of arachidonic or linoleic acid but not of dehydroepiandrosterone, cholesterol, or 25-hydroxy-cholesterol, activate the receptor chimera. In addition, saturated fatty acids induce the reporter gene. Shortening the chain length to n = 6 or introduction of an omega-terminal carboxylic group abolished the activation potential of the fatty acid. In conclusion, the present results indicate that fatty acids can regulate gene expression mediated by a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily.
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              Hypolipidaemic hepatic peroxisome proliferators form a novel class of chemical carcinogens.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                November 20 1998
                November 20 1998
                : 273
                : 47
                : 31581-31589
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.273.47.31581
                © 1998

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