Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by the recurrent cessation (apnea) or reduction (hypopnea) of airflow due to the partial or complete upper airway collapse during sleep. Respiratory disturbances causing sleep fragmentation and repetitive nocturnal hypoxia are responsible for a variety of nocturnal and daytime complaints of sleep apnea patients, such as snoring, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, or impaired cognitive functions. Different techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography, are used to evaluate the structural and functional changes in OSAS patients. With quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) analysis, the possible existence of alterations in the brain electrical activity of OSAS patients can be investigated. We review the articles on qEEG results of sleep apnea patients and summarize the possible explanations of these qEEG measures. Finally, we review the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on these alterations to assess whether CPAP use can eliminate alterations in the brain activity of OSAS patients.