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      Current and Emerging Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

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          Abstract

          Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined with appropriate medication can enhance treatment efficiency, alleviate the symptoms, as well as diminish the complications. For point-of-care purposes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are considered to be the best candidates for diabetes therapy. This review focuses on current growth areas of CGM technologies, specifically focusing on subcutaneous implantable electrochemical glucose sensors. The superiority of CGM systems is introduced firstly, and then the strategies for fabrication of minimally-invasive and non-invasive CGM biosensors are discussed, respectively. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future perspective for CGM systems.

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          Most cited references 104

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          Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030

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            Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

            The ability to control the size, shape, and material of a surface has reinvigorated the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Because excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanostructured surface or nanoparticle lies at the heart of SERS, the ability to reliably control the surface characteristics has taken SERS from an interesting surface phenomenon to a rapidly developing analytical tool. This article first explains many fundamental features of SERS and then describes the use of nanosphere lithography for the fabrication of highly reproducible and robust SERS substrates. In particular, we review metal film over nanosphere surfaces as excellent candidates for several experiments that were once impossible with more primitive SERS substrates (e.g., metal island films). The article also describes progress in applying SERS to the detection of chemical warfare agents and several biological molecules.
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              A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application.

              This review is aimed at celebrating the upcoming 20th anniversary of the birth of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). After the discovery in 1992 that the functional activation of the human cerebral cortex (due to oxygenation and hemodynamic changes) can be explored by NIRS, human functional brain mapping research has gained a new dimension. fNIRS or optical topography, or near-infrared imaging or diffuse optical imaging is used mainly to detect simultaneous changes in optical properties of the human cortex from multiple measurement sites and displays the results in the form of a map or image over a specific area. In order to place current fNIRS research in its proper context, this paper presents a brief historical overview of the events that have shaped the present status of fNIRS. In particular, technological progresses of fNIRS are highlighted (i.e., from single-site to multi-site functional cortical measurements (images)), introduction of the commercial multi-channel systems, recent commercial wireless instrumentation and more advanced prototypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Environmental and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Shanghai Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China; chencheng@ 123456sspu.edu.cn (C.C.); xlzhao@ 123456sspu.edu.cn (X.-L.Z.); zhli@ 123456sspu.edu.cn (Z.-H.L.)
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200231, China; qsh2304@ 123456163.com
                [3 ]Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA, UK; ajf@ 123456eng.cam.ac.uk
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zgzhu@ 123456sspu.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-21-5021-5021 (ext. 8325)
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel)
                sensors
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                MDPI
                1424-8220
                19 January 2017
                January 2017
                : 17
                : 1
                28106820 5298755 10.3390/s17010182 sensors-17-00182
                © 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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