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      The Role of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in the Perioperative Period of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Comparison with Transit-Time Flow Measurement

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          Abstract

          Introduction: The value of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) with the supraclavicular approach for preoperative evaluation of the native left internal mammary artery (LIMA) as well as for the postoperative detection of LIMA graft patency was recently suggested. However, the parameters such as the flow volume and pulsatile index (PI) have not been studied in detail. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to analyze the LIMA data in the perioperative period and explore the relationships between the intraoperative graft flow with transit-time flow measurement (TTFM) and the postoperatively measured parameters with CDUS. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with significant stenosis (≥70%) or occlusions in left anterior descending artery (LAD) who were referred for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were enrolled in this study and examined by CDUS prior to CABG from April to July 2016. The perioperative measurements of proximal LIMA by CDUS were compared. In addition, the correlation between the intraoperative graft flow, such as the mean graft flow (MGF) and PI, and the immediate postoperative measurements of CDUS in LIMA bypassed grafts was statistically analyzed. Results: Six patients were excluded due to screening failure, or insufficient visualization of CDUS images for analysis. Fifty-two patients with in situ LIMA-LAD graft, with or without additional arterial grafts or saphenous vein grafts, were included in the final analysis. The postoperative diameters of proximal LIMA were not significantly different from preoperative diameters (2.21 ± 0.18 vs. 2.27 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.070). The flow volume on the early postoperative CDUS significantly increased (39.77 ± 21.59 vs. 25.96 ± 13.17 mL/min, p < 0.001) and the PI significantly decreased (1.43 ± 0.46 vs. 4.20 ± 1.49, p < 0.001) versus those of preoperative measurements. The MGF had a moderate correlation with the flow volume on the early postoperative CDUS ( r = 0.414, p = 0.002), and the PI by TTFM had a weak correlation with that by CDUS ( r = 0.353, p = 0.010) as well. Conclusions: The MGF and PI by TTFM in CABG were associated with in situ LIMA graft parameters measured by CDUS studies. CDUS is a useful functional noninvasive tool for the preoperative screening and postoperative follow-up of patients with in situ LIMA bypass.

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          Most cited references34

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          Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with three-vessel disease and left main coronary disease: 5-year follow-up of the randomised, clinical SYNTAX trial.

          We report the 5-year results of the SYNTAX trial, which compared coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the treatment of patients with left main coronary disease or three-vessel disease, to confirm findings at 1 and 3 years. The randomised, clinical SYNTAX trial with nested registries took place in 85 centres in the USA and Europe. A cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist at each centre assessed consecutive patients with de-novo three-vessel disease or left main coronary disease to determine suitability for study treatments. Eligible patients suitable for either treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive voice response system to either PCI with a first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stent or to CABG. Patients suitable for only one treatment option were entered into either the PCI-only or CABG-only registries. We analysed a composite rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 5-year follow-up by Kaplan-Meier analysis on an intention-to-treat basis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00114972. 1800 patients were randomly assigned to CABG (n=897) or PCI (n=903). More patients who were assigned to CABG withdrew consent than did those assigned to PCI (50 vs 11). After 5 years' follow-up, Kaplan-Meier estimates of MACCE were 26·9% in the CABG group and 37·3% in the PCI group (p<0·0001). Estimates of myocardial infarction (3·8% in the CABG group vs 9·7% in the PCI group; p<0·0001) and repeat revascularisation (13·7%vs 25·9%; p<0·0001) were significantly increased with PCI versus CABG. All-cause death (11·4% in the CABG group vs 13·9% in the PCI group; p=0·10) and stroke (3·7%vs 2·4%; p=0·09) were not significantly different between groups. 28·6% of patients in the CABG group with low SYNTAX scores had MACCE versus 32·1% of patients in the PCI group (p=0·43) and 31·0% in the CABG group with left main coronary disease had MACCE versus 36·9% in the PCI group (p=0·12); however, in patients with intermediate or high SYNTAX scores, MACCE was significantly increased with PCI (intermediate score, 25·8% of the CABG group vs 36·0% of the PCI group; p=0·008; high score, 26·8%vs 44·0%; p<0·0001). CABG should remain the standard of care for patients with complex lesions (high or intermediate SYNTAX scores). For patients with less complex disease (low SYNTAX scores) or left main coronary disease (low or intermediate SYNTAX scores), PCI is an acceptable alternative. All patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease should be reviewed and discussed by both a cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist to reach consensus on optimum treatment. Boston Scientific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Review of coronary subclavian steal syndrome.

            The clinical benefits of using the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to bypass the left anterior descending artery are well established making it the most frequently used conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Coronary subclavian steal syndrome (CSSS) occurs during left arm exertion when (1) the LIMA is used during bypass surgery and (2) there is a high grade (≥75%) left subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion proximal to the ostia of the LIMA resulting in "stealing" of the myocardial blood supply via retrograde flow up the LIMA graft to maintain left upper extremity perfusion. Although CSSS was once thought to be a rare phenomenon, its prevalence has been underestimated and is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious threat to the success of CABG. Current guidelines are lacking on recommendations for screening of subclavian artery stenosis (SAS) pre- and post-CABG. We hope to provide an algorithm for SAS screening to prevent CSSS in internal mammary artery bypass recipients and review treatment options in the percutaneous era.
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              Transit-time flow predicts outcomes in coronary artery bypass graft patients: a series of 1000 consecutive arterial grafts.

              This study was undertaken to evaluate transit-time flow (TTF) as a tool to detect technical errors in arterial bypass grafts intra-operatively and predict outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                September 2021
                30 June 2021
                : 146
                : 5
                : 583-590
                Affiliations
                [_a] aDepartment of Ultrasound, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China
                [_b] bDepartment of Cardiac Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing, China
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8700-639X
                Article
                512430 Cardiology 2021;146:583–590
                10.1159/000512430
                34192706
                bf7c235e-f5ab-4829-b03e-638438870d76
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 19 February 2020
                : 16 October 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Cardiovascular Imaging: Research Article

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Transit-time flow measurement,Ultrasonography,Internal mammary artery,Coronary artery bypass graft

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