02 February 2015
Circadian rhythm, Liver, Metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes, ARC, arcuate nucleus, BMAL1, brain and muscle ARNT-like 1, CAR, constitutive androstane receptor, CLOCK, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput, CRY, cryptochrome, CYP7A1, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, CYPs, cytochrome P450 enzymes, DBP, D-site binding protein, E-box, enhance box, EMT, emergency medical technician, FAA, food anticipatory activity, FASPS, familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome, FEO, food entrainable oscillator, FOXO3, forkhead box O3, FXR, farnesoid-X receptor, GLUT2, glucose transporter 2, HDAC3, histone deacetylase 3, HIP, hypoxia inducing protein, HLF, hepatic leukemia factor, LDL, low-density lipoprotein, LRH1, liver receptor homolog 1, NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, PER, period, RHT, retinohypothalamic tract, RORα, retinoid-related orphan receptor α, RORE, ROR-response element, SCN, suprachiasmatic nucleus, SHP, small heterodimer partner, SIRT1, sirtuin 1, TEF, thyrotroph embryonic factor, TGR5, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, TTFL, transcriptional translational feedback loop
Mounting research evidence demonstrates a significant negative impact of circadian disruption on human health. Shift work, chronic jet lag and sleep disturbances are associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, and consequently result in obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Here, these associations are reviewed with respect to liver metabolism and disease.