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      Awareness of the severity of liver disease re-examined using software-combined biomarkers of liver fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity

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          Abstract

          Background

          Effective antiviral treatment (direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs)), the requirement for a fibrosis score to support DDA reimbursement and a screening strategy, such as the USA baby boomer campaign, should lead to an increased awareness of liver disease severity.

          Objective

          To compare the awareness of liver disease severity between the USA and France, two countries with similar access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatments, similar rules for treatment reimbursement and similar availability of validated fibrosis tests, but with different policies, as France has no screening.

          Method

          The global database of the FibroTest–ActiTest, including 1 085 657 subjects between 2002 and 2014, was retrospectively analysed. Awareness was defined as the test prescription rate and was compared between the USA and France, according to year of birth, gender and dates of DAA availability and screening campaign (2013–2014).

          Results

          In the USA 252 688 subjects were investigated for HCV, with a dramatic increase (138%) in the test rate in 2013–2014 (119 271) compared with 2011–2012 (50 031). In France 470 762 subjects were investigated (subjects with HCV and other disease) and the rates were stable. In USA 82.4% of subjects and in France 84.6% were classified as either the highest or lowest priority. The most striking difference was the higher test rate in women born between 1935 and 1944 in France 30 384/200 672 (15.1%) compared with the USA 8035/97 079 (8.3%) (OR=1.98 (95% CI 1.93 to 2.03) p<0.0001). This resulted in twice as many cases of cirrhosis being detected, 2.6% (5191/200 672 women) and 1.3% (1303/97 079), respectively, despite the same prevalence of cirrhosis in this age group (17.1% vs 16.2%) and without any clear explanation as to why they had not been included in the USA screening.

          Conclusions

          This study highlighted in the USA the association between awareness of liver disease and both the HCV campaign and DAA availability. In comparison with France, there was a dramatically lower awareness of cirrhosis in the USA for women born between 1935 and 1944.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence.

          In efforts to inform public health decision makers, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2010 (GBD2010) Study aims to estimate the burden of disease using available parameters. This study was conducted to collect and analyze available prevalence data to be used for estimating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden of disease. In this systematic review, antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) seroprevalence data from 232 articles were pooled to estimate age-specific seroprevalence curves in 1990 and 2005, and to produce age-standardized prevalence estimates for each of 21 GBD regions using a model-based meta-analysis. This review finds that globally the prevalence and number of people with anti-HCV has increased from 2.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 2.1%-2.5%) to 2.8% (95% UI: 2.6%-3.1%) and >122 million to >185 million between 1990 and 2005. Central and East Asia and North Africa/Middle East are estimated to have high prevalence (>3.5%); South and Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Andean, Central, and Southern Latin America, Caribbean, Oceania, Australasia, and Central, Eastern, and Western Europe have moderate prevalence (1.5%-3.5%); whereas Asia Pacific, Tropical Latin America, and North America have low prevalence (<1.5%). The high prevalence of global HCV infection necessitates renewed efforts in primary prevention, including vaccine development, as well as new approaches to secondary and tertiary prevention to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease and to improve survival for those who already have evidence of liver disease. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
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            An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group.

             P Bedossa,  T Poynard (1996)
            Histological activity reflects the global assessment of basic necroinflammatory lesions and is a criterion of major importance in chronic hepatitis C. The aim of this study was to propose and test the accuracy of a simple algorithm that generates a single activity score based on basic pathological features. A panel of 10 pathologists reviewed 363 chronic hepatitis C liver biopsies and graded the activity of hepatitis according to their own experience (reference activity). Then, a consensual algorithm on the grading of activity was established by the 10 experts in a panel discussion. Finally, stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to define which basic features had been intuitively used in the reference activity (statistical activity). To test the accuracy of the algorithm, concordance between the activity defined by the algorithm and the reference activity was assessed. It was compared with concordance between the activity defined by the statistical model and the reference activity. The algorithm proposed by the panel for the grading of activity included piecemeal necrosis and lobular necrosis. Concordance between reference activity and activity defined by the algorithm was substantial (305 cases, 84%, kappa = .75). Discriminant analysis showed that piecemeal necrosis, lobular necrosis, and portal inflammation were independently used to grade the activity. Concordance between reference activity and activity defined by the statistical model was substantial (300 cases, 83%, kappa = .73), virtually identical to the concordance between reference activity and activity defined by algorithm. This study proposes a simple algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis. Its accuracy is as high as that obtained using a statistical approach.
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              The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

              Understanding the major health problems in the United States and how they are changing over time is critical for informing national health policy. To measure the burden of diseases, injuries, and leading risk factors in the United States from 1990 to 2010 and to compare these measurements with those of the 34 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We used the systematic analysis of descriptive epidemiology of 291 diseases and injuries, 1160 sequelae of these diseases and injuries, and 67 risk factors or clusters of risk factors from 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries developed for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study to describe the health status of the United States and to compare US health outcomes with those of 34 OECD countries. Years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were computed by multiplying the number of deaths at each age by a reference life expectancy at that age. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were calculated by multiplying prevalence (based on systematic reviews) by the disability weight (based on population-based surveys) for each sequela; disability in this study refers to any short- or long-term loss of health. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. Deaths and DALYs related to risk factors were based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of exposure data and relative risks for risk-outcome pairs. Healthy life expectancy (HALE) was used to summarize overall population health, accounting for both length of life and levels of ill health experienced at different ages. US life expectancy for both sexes combined increased from 75.2 years in 1990 to 78.2 years in 2010; during the same period, HALE increased from 65.8 years to 68.1 years. The diseases and injuries with the largest number of YLLs in 2010 were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and road injury. Age-standardized YLL rates increased for Alzheimer disease, drug use disorders, chronic kidney disease, kidney cancer, and falls. The diseases with the largest number of YLDs in 2010 were low back pain, major depressive disorder, other musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety disorders. As the US population has aged, YLDs have comprised a larger share of DALYs than have YLLs. The leading risk factors related to DALYs were dietary risks, tobacco smoking, high body mass index, high blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Among 34 OECD countries between 1990 and 2010, the US rank for the age-standardized death rate changed from 18th to 27th, for the age-standardized YLL rate from 23rd to 28th, for the age-standardized YLD rate from 5th to 6th, for life expectancy at birth from 20th to 27th, and for HALE from 14th to 26th. From 1990 to 2010, the United States made substantial progress in improving health. Life expectancy at birth and HALE increased, all-cause death rates at all ages decreased, and age-specific rates of years lived with disability remained stable. However, morbidity and chronic disability now account for nearly half of the US health burden, and improvements in population health in the United States have not kept pace with advances in population health in other wealthy nations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                bmjopen
                bmjopen
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2044-6055
                2015
                22 December 2015
                : 5
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière APHP , Paris, France
                [2 ]Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 938 and Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), INSERM , Paris, France
                [3 ]BioPredictive , Paris, France
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Professor Thierry Poynard; tpoynard@ 123456teaser.fr
                Article
                bmjopen-2015-010017
                10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010017
                4691773
                26700292
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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                Gastroenterology and Hepatology
                Research
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