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      SIRT1 Activator E1231 Alleviates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Regulating Lipid Metabolism

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          Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases. Silencing information regulator 1 (SIRT1) was demonstrated to modulate cholesterol and lipid metabolism in NAFLD. Here, a novel SIRT1 activator, E1231, was studied for its potential improvement effects on NAFLD. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFHC) for 40 weeks to create a NAFLD mouse model, and E1231 was administered by oral gavage (50 mg/kg body weight, once/day) for 4 weeks. Liver-related plasma biochemistry parameter tests, Oil Red O staining, and hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that E1231 treatment ameliorated plasma dyslipidemia, plasma marker levels of liver damage (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), liver total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) contents, and obviously decreased hepatic steatosis score and NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) in the NAFLD mouse model. Western blot results showed that E1231 treatment significantly regulated lipid-metabolism-related protein expression. In particular, E1231 treatment increased SIRT1, PGC-1α, and p-AMPKα protein expression but decreased ACC and SCD-1 protein expression. Additionally, in vitro studies demonstrated that E1231 inhibited lipid accumulation and improved mitochondrial function in free-fatty-acid-challenged hepatocytes, and required SIRT1 activation. In conclusion, this study illustrated that the SIRT1 activator E1231 alleviated HFHC-induced NAFLD development and improved liver injury by regulating the SIRT1-AMPKα pathway, and might be a promising candidate compound for NAFLD treatment.

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          Most cited references55

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          Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

          Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of a history of significant alcohol use or other known liver disease. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the progressive form of NAFLD. The Pathology Committee of the NASH Clinical Research Network designed and validated a histological feature scoring system that addresses the full spectrum of lesions of NAFLD and proposed a NAFLD activity score (NAS) for use in clinical trials. The scoring system comprised 14 histological features, 4 of which were evaluated semi-quantitatively: steatosis (0-3), lobular inflammation (0-2), hepatocellular ballooning (0-2), and fibrosis (0-4). Another nine features were recorded as present or absent. An anonymized study set of 50 cases (32 from adult hepatology services, 18 from pediatric hepatology services) was assembled, coded, and circulated. For the validation study, agreement on scoring and a diagnostic categorization ("NASH," "borderline," or "not NASH") were evaluated by using weighted kappa statistics. Inter-rater agreement on adult cases was: 0.84 for fibrosis, 0.79 for steatosis, 0.56 for injury, and 0.45 for lobular inflammation. Agreement on diagnostic category was 0.61. Using multiple logistic regression, five features were independently associated with the diagnosis of NASH in adult biopsies: steatosis (P = .009), hepatocellular ballooning (P = .0001), lobular inflammation (P = .0001), fibrosis (P = .0001), and the absence of lipogranulomas (P = .001). The proposed NAS is the unweighted sum of steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. In conclusion, we present a strong scoring system and NAS for NAFLD and NASH with reasonable inter-rater reproducibility that should be useful for studies of both adults and children with any degree of NAFLD. NAS of > or =5 correlated with a diagnosis of NASH, and biopsies with scores of less than 3 were diagnosed as "not NASH."
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            Global burden of NAFLD and NASH: trends, predictions, risk factors and prevention

            NAFLD is one of the most important causes of liver disease worldwide and will probably emerge as the leading cause of end-stage liver disease in the coming decades, with the disease affecting both adults and children. The epidemiology and demographic characteristics of NAFLD vary worldwide, usually parallel to the prevalence of obesity, but a substantial proportion of patients are lean. The large number of patients with NAFLD with potential for progressive liver disease creates challenges for screening, as the diagnosis of NASH necessitates invasive liver biopsy. Furthermore, individuals with NAFLD have a high frequency of metabolic comorbidities and could place a growing strain on health-care systems from their need for management. While awaiting the development effective therapies, this disease warrants the attention of primary care physicians, specialists and health policy makers.
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              MAFLD: A consensus-driven proposed nomenclature for metabolic associated fatty liver disease

              Fatty liver associated with metabolic dysfunction is common, affects a quarter of the population, and has no approved drug therapy. Although pharmacotherapies are in development, response rates appear modest. The heterogeneous pathogenesis of metabolic fatty liver diseases and inaccuracies in terminology and definitions necessitate a reappraisal of nomenclature to inform clinical trial design and drug development. A group of experts sought to integrate current understanding of patient heterogeneity captured under the acronym nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and provide suggestions on terminology that more accurately reflects pathogenesis and can help in patient stratification for management. Experts reached consensus that NAFLD does not reflect current knowledge, and metabolic (dysfunction) associated fatty liver disease "MAFLD" was suggested as a more appropriate overarching term. This opens the door for efforts from the research community to update the nomenclature and subphenotype the disease to accelerate the translational path to new treatments.

                Author and article information

                Current Issues in Molecular Biology
                MDPI AG
                June 2023
                June 08 2023
                : 45
                : 6
                : 5052-5070
                © 2023




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