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      Floral nectary and osmophore of Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz (Orchidaceae)

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          Abstract

          The analysis of flowers collected at different stages of anthesis provides strong evidence to conclude that the shell-shaped hypochile and the knobs of epichile form a nectary. The scent comes from the aromatic constituents of nectar and the epichile tissue and the apices of all tepals (osmophores). The comparison between pollinated and unpollinated flowers revealed that the anthesis of unpollinated flowers lasted up to the 16th day. The nectariferous secretory cells formed single-layered epidermis and several layers of underlying parenchyma built by small, isodiametric cells with thin walls and dense cytoplasm, relatively large nuclei, supplied by collateral vascular bundles. During the floral lifespan, the residues of secreted material were higher on the hypochile cells. The lipoid-carbohydrate material and lipid globules in the cell walls and in the cytoplasm were localised. The abundance of starch grains was observed at the beginning of anthesis and their gradual reduction during the flower lifespan. At the end of anthesis in unpollinated flowers, the lipoid-carbohydrate-phenolic materials have been demonstrated. The phenolic material was the same as in plastoglobuli. The features such as irregular plasmalemma, the secretory vesicles that fuse with it, fully developed dictyosomes, numerous profiles of ER indicate vesicle-mediated process of secretion. The substances could be transported by vesicles to the periplasmic space via granulocrine secretion and then to the external surface. Both micro-channels and slightly developed periplasmic space were visible in the hypochile epidermis. This is the first time for anatomical survey of secretory tissue in pollinated and unpollinated flowers of E. helleborine.

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          A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy.

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            Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey.

            One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37-63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 x 10(5) cells mm(-3)). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 10(4) cells mm(-3) were commonplace, and densities >10(5) cells mm(-3) were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >10(4) cells mm(-3). Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant-pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence of yeasts in nectar samples.
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              WHY ARE SOME FLORAL NECTARS SCENTED?

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                agnieszka.kowalkowska@biol.ug.edu.pl
                Journal
                Protoplasma
                Protoplasma
                Protoplasma
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                0033-183X
                1615-6102
                9 June 2018
                9 June 2018
                2018
                : 255
                : 6
                : 1811-1825
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2370 4076, GRID grid.8585.0, Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, , University of Gdańsk, ; Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000099214842, GRID grid.1035.7, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, , Warsaw University of Technology, ; Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw, Poland
                Author notes

                Handling Editor: Hanns H. Kassemeyer

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9685-8156
                Article
                1274
                10.1007/s00709-018-1274-5
                6208831
                29948365
                bf88f790-9302-4ded-98c2-07e3a18cb3fb
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 30 December 2017
                : 1 June 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: Uniwersytet Gdański
                Award ID: 538-L160-B586-14
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Uniwersytet Gdanski
                Award ID: DS/530-L160-D243-17
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

                Molecular biology
                epipactis helleborine ssp. helleborine,orchidaceae,floral morphology,micromorphology,anatomy,ultrastructure,nectary,osmophore

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