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      The 21-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Revised (BIS-R-21): An alternative three-factor model


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          Background and aims

          Due to its important role in both healthy groups and those with physical, mental and behavioral disorders, impulsivity is a widely researched construct. Among various self-report questionnaires of impulsivity, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is arguably the most frequently used measure. Despite its international use, inconsistencies in the suggested factor structure of its latest version, the BIS-11, have been observed repeatedly in different samples. The goal of the present study was therefore to test the factor structure of the BIS-11 in several samples.


          Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two representative samples of Hungarian adults (N = 2,457; N = 2,040) and a college sample (N = 765).


          Analyses did not confirm the original model of the measure in any of the samples. Based on explorative factor analyses, an alternative three-factor model (cognitive impulsivity; behavioral impulsivity; and impatience/restlessness) of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is suggested. The pattern of the associations between the three factors and aggression, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological distress supports the construct validity of this new model.


          The new measurement model of impulsivity was confirmed in two independent samples. However, it requires further cross-cultural validation to clarify the content of self-reported impulsivity in both clinical and nonclinical samples.

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          Most cited references109

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          Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures

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            Factor structure of the barratt impulsiveness scale

            The purpose of the present study was to revise the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 10 (BIS-10), identify the factor structure of the items among normals, and compare their scores on the revised form (BIS-11) with psychiatric inpatients and prison inmates. The scale was administered to 412 college undergraduates, 248 psychiatric inpatients, and 73 male prison inmates. Exploratory principal components analysis of the items identified six primary factors and three second-order factors. The three second-order factors were labeled Attentional Impulsiveness, Motor Impulsiveness, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness. Two of the three second-order factors identified in the BIS-11 were consistent with those proposed by Barratt (1985), but no cognitive impulsiveness component was identified per se. The results of the present study suggest that the total score of the BIS-11 is an internally consistent measure of impulsiveness and has potential clinical utility for measuring impulsiveness among selected patient and inmate populations.
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              High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success.

              What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                June 2020
                26 May 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                : 225-246
                [1 ]Faculty of Health Sciences , Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                [2 ]Nyírő Gyula National Institute of Psychiatry and Addictions , Budapest, Hungary
                [3 ]Institute of Psychology , ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
                [4 ]deptYale School of Medicine , Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling and Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, CT, USA
                [5 ]deptInternational Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department , Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK
                [6 ]Institute of Education , ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: m.gabrilovics@ 123456gmail.com Tel.: +36 20 522 1850
                [** ]Corresponding author. E-mail: demetrovics@ 123456ppk.elte.hu

                The first two authors contributed equally to the manuscript.

                Author information
                © 2020 The Author(s)

                Open Access statement. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 26 August 2019
                : 04 January 2020
                : 04 April 2020
                Page count
                Tables: 07, References: 110, Pages: 22
                Funded by: Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office
                Award ID: K111938
                Award ID: KKP126835
                Award ID: K109375
                Funded by: Hungarian Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor
                Award ID: KAB-KT-09-0007
                Funded by: János Bolyai Research Fellowship
                Funded by: Ministry for Innovation and Technology
                Funded by: Hungarian Academy of Sciences
                Award ID: LP-2018-21/2018
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse
                Award ID: R01 DA035058
                Funded by: Hungarian Ministry of Human Capacities
                Award ID: 783-3/2018/FEKUTSRAT
                Full-length Report

                barratt impulsiveness scale,bis-11,impulsivity,confirmatory factor analysis,representative sample,alternative factor structure


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