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      Management of HIV-associated tuberculosis in resource-limited settings: a state-of-the-art review

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          Abstract

          The HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) epidemic remains a huge challenge to public health in resource-limited settings. Reducing the nearly 0.5 million deaths that result each year has been identified as a key priority. Major progress has been made over the past 10 years in defining appropriate strategies and policy guidelines for early diagnosis and effective case management. Ascertainment of cases has been improved through a twofold strategy of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in TB patients and intensified TB case finding among those living with HIV. Outcomes of rifampicin-based TB treatment are greatly enhanced by concurrent co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART reduces mortality across a spectrum of CD4 counts and randomized controlled trials have defined the optimum time to start ART. Good outcomes can be achieved when combining TB treatment with first-line ART, but use with second-line ART remains challenging due to pharmacokinetic drug interactions and cotoxicity. We review the frequency and spectrum of adverse drug reactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) resulting from combined treatment, and highlight the challenges of managing HIV-associated drug-resistant TB.

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          Most cited references 123

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          Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system.

          1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the active form of vitamin D, is known to regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism, thus being a key-player in bone-formation. However 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) also has a physiological role beyond its well-known role in skeletal homeostasis. Here, we describe 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) as an immunomodulator targeting various immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), as well as T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, hence modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides being targets, immune cells express vitamin D-activating enzymes, allowing local conversion of inactive vitamin D into 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) within the immune system. Taken together, these data indicate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) plays a role in maintenance of immune homeostasis. Several epidemiological studies have linked inadequate vitamin D levels to a higher susceptibility of immune-mediated disorders, including chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the complex immune-regulatory effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on immune cells as well as its role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, more in particular in tuberculosis and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Dexamethasone for the treatment of tuberculous meningitis in adolescents and adults.

            Tuberculous meningitis kills or disables more than half of those affected with the disease. Previous studies have been too small to determine whether adjunctive treatment with corticosteroids can reduce the risk of disability or death among adults with tuberculous meningitis, and the effect of coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Vietnam in patients over 14 years of age who had tuberculous meningitis, with or without HIV infection, to determine whether adjunctive treatment with dexamethasone reduced the risk of death or severe disability after nine months of follow-up. We conducted prespecified subgroup analyses and intention-to-treat analyses. A total of 545 patients were randomly assigned to groups that received either dexamethasone (274 patients) or placebo (271 patients). Only 10 patients (1.8 percent) had been lost to follow-up at nine months of treatment. Treatment with dexamethasone was associated with a reduced risk of death (relative risk, 0.69; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.92; P=0.01). It was not associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of severely disabled patients (34 of 187 patients [18.2 percent] among survivors in the dexamethasone group vs. 22 of 159 patients [13.8 percent] in the placebo group, P=0.27) or in the proportion of patients who had either died or were severely disabled after nine months (odds ratio, 0.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.58 to 1.13; P=0.22). The treatment effect was consistent across subgroups that were defined by disease-severity grade (stratified relative risk of death, 0.68; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.91; P=0.007) and by HIV status (stratified relative risk of death, 0.78; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.04; P=0.08). Significantly fewer serious adverse events occurred in the dexamethasone group than in the placebo group (26 of 274 patients vs. 45 of 271 patients, P=0.02). Adjunctive treatment with dexamethasone improves survival in patients over 14 years of age with tuberculous meningitis but probably does not prevent severe disability. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              An official ATS statement: hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis therapy.

              Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a problem of increasing significance, but has been a long-standing concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The liver has a central role in drug metabolism and detoxification, and is consequently vulnerable to injury. The pathogenesis and types of DILI are presented, ranging from hepatic adaptation to hepatocellular injury. Knowledge of the metabolism of anti-TB medications and of the mechanisms of TB DILI is incomplete. Understanding of TB DILI has been hampered by differences in study populations, definitions of hepatotoxicity, and monitoring and reporting practices. Available data regarding the incidence and severity of TB DILI overall, in selected demographic groups, and in those coinfected with HIV or hepatitis B or C virus are presented. Systematic steps for prevention and management of TB DILI are recommended. These include patient and regimen selection to optimize benefits over risks, effective staff and patient education, ready access to care for patients, good communication among providers, and judicious use of clinical and biochemical monitoring. During treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) alanine aminotransferase (ALT) monitoring is recommended for those who chronically consume alcohol, take concomitant hepatotoxic drugs, have viral hepatitis or other preexisting liver disease or abnormal baseline ALT, have experienced prior isoniazid hepatitis, are pregnant or are within 3 months postpartum. During treatment of TB disease, in addition to these individuals, patients with HIV infection should have ALT monitoring. Some experts recommend biochemical monitoring for those older than 35 years. Treatment should be interrupted and, generally, a modified or alternative regimen used for those with ALT elevation more than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) in the presence of hepatitis symptoms and/or jaundice, or five times the ULN in the absence of symptoms. Priorities for future studies to develop safer treatments for LTBI and for TB disease are presented.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Med
                BMC Med
                BMC Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1741-7015
                2013
                2 December 2013
                : 11
                : 253
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
                [2 ]The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [4 ]Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [5 ]Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [6 ]International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), Paris, France
                1741-7015-11-253
                10.1186/1741-7015-11-253
                4220801
                24295487
                Copyright © 2013 Lawn et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Medicine

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