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      Alpine grassland plants grow earlier and faster but biomass remains unchanged over 35 years of climate change

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          Abstract

          Satellite data indicate significant advancement in alpine spring phenology over decades of climate warming, but corresponding field evidence is scarce. It is also unknown whether this advancement results from an earlier shift of phenological events, or enhancement of plant growth under unchanged phenological pattern. By analyzing a 35‐year dataset of seasonal biomass dynamics of a Tibetan alpine grassland, we show that climate change promoted both earlier phenology and faster growth, without changing annual biomass production. Biomass production increased in spring due to a warming‐induced earlier onset of plant growth, but decreased in autumn due mainly to increased water stress. Plants grew faster but the fast‐growing period shortened during the mid‐growing season. These findings provide the first in situ evidence of long‐term changes in growth patterns in alpine grassland plant communities, and suggest that earlier phenology and faster growth will jointly contribute to plant growth in a warming climate.

          Abstract

          Climate change reshapes plant growth patterns by shifting phenology earlier, enhancing growth rate, and shortening growth period in a Tibetan alpine grassland over 35 years. The changes in growth patterns alters seasonal, but not annual, biomass production.

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          Leaf senescence.

           H. Kim,  Hong Nam,  Ruth Lim (2006)
          Leaf senescence constitutes the final stage of leaf development and is critical for plants' fitness as nutrient relocation from leaves to reproducing seeds is achieved through this process. Leaf senescence involves a coordinated action at the cellular, tissue, organ, and organism levels under the control of a highly regulated genetic program. Major breakthroughs in the molecular understanding of leaf senescence were achieved through characterization of various senescence mutants and senescence-associated genes, which revealed the nature of regulatory factors and a highly complex molecular regulatory network underlying leaf senescence. The genetically identified regulatory factors include transcription regulators, receptors and signaling components for hormones and stress responses, and regulators of metabolism. Key issues still need to be elucidated, including cellular-level analysis of senescence-associated cell death, the mechanism of coordination among cellular-, organ-, and organism-level senescence, the integration mechanism of various senescence-affecting signals, and the nature and control of leaf age.
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            How does climate warming affect plant-pollinator interactions?

            Climate warming affects the phenology, local abundance and large-scale distribution of plants and pollinators. Despite this, there is still limited knowledge of how elevated temperatures affect plant-pollinator mutualisms and how changed availability of mutualistic partners influences the persistence of interacting species. Here we review the evidence of climate warming effects on plants and pollinators and discuss how their interactions may be affected by increased temperatures. The onset of flowering in plants and first appearance dates of pollinators in several cases appear to advance linearly in response to recent temperature increases. Phenological responses to climate warming may therefore occur at parallel magnitudes in plants and pollinators, although considerable variation in responses across species should be expected. Despite the overall similarities in responses, a few studies have shown that climate warming may generate temporal mismatches among the mutualistic partners. Mismatches in pollination interactions are still rarely explored and their demographic consequences are largely unknown. Studies on multi-species plant-pollinator assemblages indicate that the overall structure of pollination networks probably are robust against perturbations caused by climate warming. We suggest potential ways of studying warming-caused mismatches and their consequences for plant-pollinator interactions, and highlight the strengths and limitations of such approaches.
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              Plant science. Phenology under global warming.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jshe@pku.edu.cn
                Journal
                Ecol Lett
                Ecol. Lett
                10.1111/(ISSN)1461-0248
                ELE
                Ecology Letters
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1461-023X
                1461-0248
                12 February 2020
                April 2020
                : 23
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1111/ele.v23.4 )
                : 701-710
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro‐Ecosystems College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology Institute of Innovation Ecology Lanzhou University Lanzhou 730000 China
                [ 2 ] Institute of Ecology College of Urban and Environmental Sciences Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education Peking University Beijing 100871 China
                [ 3 ] Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences Xining 810008 China
                [ 4 ] State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change Institute of Botany Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100093 China
                [ 5 ] School of Biological Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta Georgia 30332 USA
                [ 6 ] Environmental Program Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources University of Vermont Burlington VT 05405 USA
                [ 7 ] Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources University of Vermont Burlington VT 05405 USA
                [ 8 ] Gund Institute for Environment University of Vermont Burlington VT 05405 USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: E‐mail: jshe@ 123456pku.edu.cn

                Article
                ELE13474
                10.1111/ele.13474
                7154776
                32052555
                © 2020 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Pages: 10, Words: 7083
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: research grants from Lanzhou University
                Funded by: Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities
                Award ID: lzujbky‐2019‐76
                Funded by: the National Science Foundation of USA to LJ
                Award ID: DEB‐1856318 and CBET‐1833988
                Funded by: a Semper Ardens grant from the Carlsbergfondet to NJS
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 31630009; 31901145
                Categories
                Letter
                Letters
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                April 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.0 mode:remove_FC converted:14.04.2020

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