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      The Medication Appropriateness Index at 20: Where It Started, Where It Has Been, and Where It May Be Going

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      Drugs & Aging

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Potentially inappropriate prescribing for older adults is a major public health concern. While there are multiple measures of potentially inappropriate prescribing, the medication appropriateness index (MAI) is one of the most common implicit approaches published in the scientific literature. The objective of this narrative review is to describe findings regarding the MAI's reliability, comparison of the MAI with other quality measures of potentially inappropriate prescribing, its predictive validity with important health outcomes, and its responsiveness to change within the framework of randomized controlled trials. A search restricted to English-language literature involving humans aged 65+ years from January 1992 to June 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the search term 'medication appropriateness index'. A manual search of the reference lists from identified articles and the authors' article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional articles. A total of 26 articles were identified for inclusion in this narrative review. The main findings were that the MAI has acceptable inter- and intra-rater reliability, it more frequently detects potentially inappropriate prescribing than a commonly used set of explicit criteria, it predicts adverse health outcomes, and it is able to demonstrate the positive impact of interventions to improve this public health problem. We conclude that the MAI may serve as a valuable tool for measuring potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Appropriate prescribing in elderly people: how well can it be measured and optimised?

          Prescription of medicines is a fundamental component of the care of elderly people, and optimisation of drug prescribing for this group of patients has become an important public-health issue worldwide. Several characteristics of ageing and geriatric medicine affect medication prescribing for elderly people and render the selection of appropriate pharmacotherapy a challenging and complex process. In the first paper in this series we aim to define and categorise appropriate prescribing in elderly people, critically review the instruments that are available to measure it and discuss their predictive validity, critically review recent randomised controlled intervention studies that assessed the effect of optimisation strategies on the appropriateness of prescribing in elderly people, and suggest directions for future research and practice.
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            A method for assessing drug therapy appropriateness.

            This study evaluated the reliability of a new medication appropriateness index. Using the index, independent assessments were made of chronic medications taken by 10 ambulatory, elderly male patients by a clinical pharmacist and an internist-geriatrician. Their overall inter-rater agreement for medication appropriateness (ppos) was 0.88, and for medication inappropriateness (pneg) was 0.95; the overall kappa was 0.83. Their intra-rater agreement for ppos was 0.94 overall, for pneg was 0.98 overall while the overall kappa was 0.92. The chronic medications taken by 10 different ambulatory elderly male patients were independently evaluated by two different clinical pharmacists. Their overall inter-rater agreement for ppos was 0.76, and for pneg was 0.93, while the overall kappa was 0.59. This new index provides a reliable method to assess drug therapy appropriateness. Its use may be applicable as a quality of care outcome measure in health services research and in institutional quality assurance programs.
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              STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person’s Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment). Consensus validation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drugs & Aging
                Drugs Aging
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1170-229X
                1179-1969
                November 2013
                September 24 2013
                November 2013
                : 30
                : 11
                : 893-900
                Article
                10.1007/s40266-013-0118-4
                24062215
                © 2013

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