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Advances in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

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      Abstract

      The rapidly moving technological advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy have enhanced an endoscopist’s ability to diagnose and treat lesions within the gastrointestinal tract. The improvement in image quality created by the advent of high-definition and magnification endoscopy, alongside image enhancement, produces images of superb quality and detail that empower the endoscopist to identify important lesions that have previously been undetectable. Additionally, we are now seeing technologies emerge, such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy, that allow the endoscopist to visualize individual cells on a microscopic level and provide a real time, in vivo histological assessment. Within this article we discuss these technologies, as well as some of the results from their early use in clinical studies.

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      Most cited references 29

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      High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging.

      We demonstrate high-speed, high-sensitivity, high-resolution optical imaging based on optical frequency-domain interferometry using a rapidly-tuned wavelength-swept laser. We derive and show experimentally that frequency-domain ranging provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional time-domain ranging as used in optical coherence tomography. A high sensitivity of -110 dB was obtained with a 6 mW source at an axial resolution of 13.5 microm and an A-line rate of 15.7 kHz, representing more than an order-of-magnitude improvement compared with previous OCT and interferometric imaging methods.
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        Confocal laser endomicroscopy: technical advances and clinical applications.

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          Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure

          Here, we introduce “tethered capsule endomicroscopy,” that involves swallowing an optomechanically-engineered pill that captures cross-sectional, 30 μm (lateral) × 7 μm (axial) resolution, microscopic images of the gut wall as it travels through the digestive tract. Results in human subjects show that this technique rapidly provides three-dimensional, microstructural images of the upper gastrointestinal tract in a simple and painless procedure, opening up new opportunities for screening for internal diseases.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospital, London, UK
            Author notes

            Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

            Journal
            F1000Res
            F1000Res
            F1000Research
            F1000Research
            F1000Research (London, UK )
            2046-1402
            16 December 2015
            2015
            : 4
            26918137
            4754008
            10.12688/f1000research.6961.1
            Copyright: © 2015 Graham DG and Banks MR

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Funding
            The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.
            Categories
            Review
            Articles
            Endoscopy
            Esophagus
            Gastrointestinal Cancers
            Small Intestine
            Stomach & Duodenum

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