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      Dissolution of cellulose in aqueous NaOH/urea solution: role of urea

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          Most cited references 37

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          Cellulose: fascinating biopolymer and sustainable raw material.

          As the most important skeletal component in plants, the polysaccharide cellulose is an almost inexhaustible polymeric raw material with fascinating structure and properties. Formed by the repeated connection of D-glucose building blocks, the highly functionalized, linear stiff-chain homopolymer is characterized by its hydrophilicity, chirality, biodegradability, broad chemical modifying capacity, and its formation of versatile semicrystalline fiber morphologies. In view of the considerable increase in interdisciplinary cellulose research and product development over the past decade worldwide, this paper assembles the current knowledge in the structure and chemistry of cellulose, and in the development of innovative cellulose esters and ethers for coatings, films, membranes, building materials, drilling techniques, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. New frontiers, including environmentally friendly cellulose fiber technologies, bacterial cellulose biomaterials, and in-vitro syntheses of cellulose are highlighted together with future aims, strategies, and perspectives of cellulose research and its applications.
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            Ion-solvent interaction. Structural aspects of ion-solvent interaction in aqueous solutions: a suggested picture of water structure

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              Rapid dissolution of cellulose in LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions.

               Jie Cai,  Lina Zhang (2005)
              Rapid dissolution of cellulose in LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions was studied systematically. The dissolution behavior and solubility of cellulose were evaluated by using (13)C NMR, optical microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, and viscometry. The experiment results revealed that cellulose having viscosity-average molecular weight ((overline) M eta) of 11.4 x 104 and 37.2 x 104 could be dissolved, respectively, in 7% NaOH/12% urea and 4.2% LiOH/12% urea aqueous solutions pre-cooled to -10 degrees C within 2 min, whereas all of them could not be dissolved in KOH/urea aqueous solution. The dissolution power of the solvent systems was in the order of LiOH/urea > NaOH/urea > KOH/urea aqueous solution. The results from DSC and (13)C NMR indicated that LiOH/urea and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions as non-derivatizing solvents broke the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding of cellulose and prevented the approach toward each other of the cellulose molecules, leading to the good dispersion of cellulose to form an actual solution.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cellulose
                Cellulose
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0969-0239
                1572-882X
                June 2014
                March 2 2014
                June 2014
                : 21
                : 3
                : 1183-1192
                Article
                10.1007/s10570-014-0221-7
                © 2014
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