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      Transição epidemiológica e o estudo de carga de doença no Brasil Translated title: Epidemiological transition and the study of burden of disease in Brazil

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          Abstract

          No Brasil, a transição epidemiológica não tem ocorrido de acordo com o modelo experimentado pela maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Velhos e novos problemas em saúde coexistem, com predominância das doenças crônico-degenerativas, embora as doenças transmissíveis ainda desempenhem um papel importante. Neste estudo, os diferenciais, em relação ao padrão epidemiológico, são descritos para o Brasil e grandes regiões, para o indicador de saúde dos estudos da carga de doença, o DALY. Entre os principais resultados encontrados, para o Brasil, destaca-se que o grupo das doenças não-transmissíveis, infecciosas/parasitárias/maternas/perinatais/nutricionais, e das causas externas representaram, respectivamente, 66,3%, 23,5% e 10,2% da carga total de doença estimada. A utilização do indicador DALY propicia a identificação de prioridades em função do perfil epidemiológico, facilitando a tomada de decisões e destinação adequada de recursos por parte dos gestores.

          Translated abstract

          In Brazil, the epidemiological transition has not followed the model experienced by most developed countries. There is coexistence of old and new health problems, where despite the predominance of the chronical and degenerative diseases, the communicable ones still play an important role. In this study the differentials in relation to the epidemiological pattern are described not only for the country as a whole, but also for its major regions, using the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), the health indicator of the studies of burden of disease. Amongst the main results found we stand out that the group of chronical and degenerative diseases is responsible for 66,3% of the national burden of disease; 23,5% are responded by the communicable diseases, perinatal and maternal conditions and nutritional deficiencies; and 10,2% is due to the injuries. The use of DALY permits the identification of health priorities based on the epidemiological profile, making easier the process of decision make and the use of resources by the managers.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases.

          Shifting dietary patterns, a decline in energy expenditure associated with a sedentary lifestyle, an ageing population--together with tobacco use and alcohol consumption--are major risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and pose an increasing challenge to public health. This report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation reviews the evidence on the effects of diet and nutrition on chronic diseases and makes recommendations for public health policies and strategies that encompass societal, behavioural and ecological dimensions. Although the primary aim of the Consultation was to set targets related to diet and nutrition, the importance of physical activity was also emphasized. The Consultation considered diet in the context of the macro-economic implications of public health recommendations on agriculture and the global supply and demand for fresh and processed foodstuffs. In setting out ways to decrease the burden of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (including hypertension and stroke), cancer, dental diseases and osteoporosis, this report proposes that nutrition should be placed at the forefront of public health policies and programmes. This report will be of interest to policy-makers and public health professionals alike, in a wide range of disciplines including nutrition, general medicine and gerontology. It shows how, at the population level, diet and exercise throughout the life course can reduce the threat of a global epidemic of chronic diseases.
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            Blood pressure and end-stage renal disease in men.

            End-stage renal disease in the United States creates a large burden for both individuals and society as a whole. Efforts to prevent the condition require an understanding of modifiable risk factors. We assessed the development of end-stage renal disease through 1990 in 332,544 men, 35 to 57 years of age, who were screened between 1973 and 1975 for entry into the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). We used data from the national registry for treated end-stage renal disease of the Health Care Financing Administration and from records on death from renal disease from the National Death Index and the Social Security Administration. During an average of 16 years of follow-up, 814 subjects either died of end-stage renal disease or were treated for that condition (15.6 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation). A strong, graded relation between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and end-stage renal disease was identified, independent of associations between the disease and age, race, income, use of medication for diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, serum cholesterol concentration, and cigarette smoking. As compared with men with an optimal level of blood pressure (systolic pressure or = 210 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or = 120 mm Hg) was 22.1 (P < 0.001). These relations were not due to end-stage renal disease that occurred soon after screening and, in the 12,866 screened men who entered the MRFIT study, were not changed by taking into account the base-line serum creatinine concentration and urinary protein excretion. The estimated risk of end-stage renal disease associated with elevations of systolic pressure was greater than that linked with elevations of diastolic pressure when both variables were considered together. Elevations of blood pressure are a strong independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease; interventions to prevent the disease need to emphasize the prevention and control of both high-normal and high blood pressure.
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              A saúde dos idosos brasileiros às vésperas do século XXI: problemas, projeções e alternativas

              São analizadas as características atuais e as perspectivas dos processos de transição demográfica e epidemiológica no Brasil. Foram utilizados os resultados do censo demográfico de 1991 e 1996 e Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) de 1993 e 1995, de novas projeções populacionais, e de recentes estudos sobre o perfil socioeconômico e de saúde de idosos de três grandes capitais brasileiras. Embora se estime que a proporção de idosos deverá duplicar até 2050, alcançando 15% do total da população, doenças crônico-degenerativas e distúrbios mentais já têm determinado, atualmente, maciça utilização dos serviços de saúde. O desenvolvimento de doenças, incapacidades e dependência têm sido mais freqüentes dentre aqueles de baixa renda que, no entanto, não têm conseguido garantir a assistência social e de saúde que demandam. Ações preventivas devem ser coordenadas por unidades básicas de saúde, priorizando necessidades locais. É imprescindível o investimento imediato na saúde, educação e formação técnica dos jovens, nos programas de apoio aos familiares e na manutenção de idosos em atividades produtivas adequadas.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                csc
                Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
                Ciênc. saúde coletiva
                ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Rio de Janeiro )
                1413-8123
                December 2004
                : 9
                : 4
                : 897-908
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
                [2 ] Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                [3 ] Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
                [4 ] Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
                Article
                S1413-81232004000400011
                10.1590/S1413-81232004000400011
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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