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      Integrin αvβ3 Requirement for Sustained Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activity during Angiogenesis

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          Abstract

          Angiogenesis depends on growth factors and vascular cell adhesion events. Integrins and growth factors are capable of activating the ras/MAP kinase pathway in vitro, yet how these signals influence endothelial cells during angiogenesis is unknown. Upon initiation of angiogenesis with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), endothelial cell mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (ERK) activity was detected as early as 5 min yet was sustained for at least 20 h. The initial wave of ERK activity (5–120 min) was refractory to integrin antagonists, whereas the sustained activity (4–20 h) depended on integrin αvβ3, but not β1 integrins. Inhibition of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) during this sustained αvβ3-dependent ERK signal blocked the formation of new blood vessels while not influencing preexisting blood vessels on the CAM. Inhibition of MEK also blocked growth factor induced migration but not adhesion of endothelial cells in vitro. Therefore, angiogenesis depends on sustained ERK activity regulated by the ligation state of both a growth factor receptor and integrin αvβ3.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

          A number of different intracellular signaling pathways have been shown to be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases. These activation events include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, 70 kDa S6 kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C-gamma, and the Jak/STAT pathways. The precise role of each of these pathways in cell signaling remains to be resolved, but studies on the differentiation of mammalian PC12 cells in tissue culture and the genetics of cell fate determination in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis suggest that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-regulated) MAPK pathway may be sufficient for these cellular responses. Experiments with PC12 cells also suggest that the duration of ERK activation is critical for cell signaling decisions.
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            Opposing effects of ERK and JNK-p38 MAP kinases on apoptosis.

            Apoptosis plays an important role during neuronal development, and defects in apoptosis may underlie various neurodegenerative disorders. To characterize molecular mechanisms that regulate neuronal apoptosis, the contributions to cell death of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family members, including ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), JNK (c-JUN NH2-terminal protein kinase), and p38, were examined after withdrawal of nerve growth factor (NGF) from rat PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells. NGF withdrawal led to sustained activation of the JNK and p38 enzymes and inhibition of ERKs. The effects of dominant-interfering or constitutively activated forms of various components of the JNK-p38 and ERK signaling pathways demonstrated that activation of JNK and p38 and concurrent inhibition of ERK are critical for induction of apoptosis in these cells. Therefore, the dynamic balance between growth factor-activated ERK and stress-activated JNK-p38 pathways may be important in determining whether a cell survives or undergoes apoptosis.
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              Requirement of vascular integrin alpha v beta 3 for angiogenesis.

              Angiogenesis depends on the adhesive interactions of vascular cells. The adhesion receptor integrin alpha v beta 3 was identified as a marker of angiogenic vascular tissue. Integrin alpha v beta 3 was expressed on blood vessels in human wound granulation tissue but not in normal skin, and it showed a fourfold increase in expression during angiogenesis on the chick chorioallantoic membrane. In the latter assay, a monoclonal antibody to alpha v beta 3 blocked angiogenesis induced by basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human melanoma fragments but had no effect on preexisting vessels. These findings suggest that alpha v beta 3 may be a useful therapeutic target for diseases characterized by neovascularization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                9 March 1998
                : 140
                : 5
                : 1255-1263
                Affiliations
                Departments of Immunology and Vascular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037
                Article
                2132684
                9490736
                Categories
                Article

                Cell biology

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