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      Effects of red raspberry polyphenols and metabolites on the biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a pilot study

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          Abstract

          Berry fruits are rich in polyphenolic compounds (PCs) and may promote health benefits.

          Abstract

          Berry fruits are rich in polyphenolic compounds (PCs) and may promote health benefits. Anthocyanin (ACN) concentrations of red raspberry (RR) ( Rubus idaeus) extracts were 887.6 ± 262.8 μg g −1, consisting mainly of cyanidin-3-sophoroside (C3S) equivalents. To test the efficacy of RR in diabetes treatment, seven patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were given one oral RR serving (123 g per day) for two weeks. Blood samples were drawn at the baseline (BSL) and post-feeding (PF) periods for phenolic metabolite, inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) biomarker analysis. Two urolithin conjugates, urolithin A glucuronide (Uro-A glur) and urolithin A sulphate (Uro-A sulf) were identified in the PF period in 5 of the 7 patients in nanomolar concentrations (1.6 ± 0.7–63.2 ± 31.2 nM). ACN-derived metabolites such as protocatechuic acid (PCA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were at micromolar levels and were higher during the PF period for diabetics and the levels were as follows: BSL: PCA = 0.6 ± 0.4, DOPAC = 1.2 ± 0.5; PF: PCA = 0.6 ± 0.4, DOPAC = 1.1 ± 0.6. The results revealed significant reductions in high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP ( p = 0.01) and there was a downward trend in IR measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, p = 0.0584) in T2DM patients. DOPAC (1–100 μM) failed to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. The multiplex assay showed variations in the cytokine levels between patients, but differences were not significant. This study demonstrates a potential use of RR in the treatment of inflammation and possibly IR as well in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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            Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.

            Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin.
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              Inflammasomes: mechanism of action, role in disease, and therapeutics.

              The inflammasomes are innate immune system receptors and sensors that regulate the activation of caspase-1 and induce inflammation in response to infectious microbes and molecules derived from host proteins. They have been implicated in a host of inflammatory disorders. Recent developments have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which different inflammasomes are activated. Additionally, increasing evidence in mouse models, supported by human data, strongly implicates an involvement of the inflammasome in the initiation or progression of diseases with a high impact on public health, such as metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, recent developments pointing toward promising therapeutics that target inflammasome activity in inflammatory diseases have been reported. This review will focus on these three areas of inflammasome research.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                FFOUAI
                Food & Function
                Food Funct.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2042-6496
                2042-650X
                May 10 2022
                2022
                : 13
                : 9
                : 5166-5176
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chronic Degenerative Disease Prevention Laboratory, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Louisiana State University AgCenter, USA
                [2 ]Food and Technology Department, CEBAS-CSIC, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain
                [3 ]Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA
                [4 ]Pennington Biomedical Research Centre, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
                Article
                10.1039/D1FO02090K
                35421887
                bfd2b632-0648-4979-97ad-7637562ec59e
                © 2022

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use

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                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=D1FO02090K

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