Berry fruits are rich in polyphenolic compounds (PCs) and may promote health benefits.
Berry fruits are rich in polyphenolic compounds (PCs) and may promote health benefits. Anthocyanin (ACN) concentrations of red raspberry (RR) ( Rubus idaeus) extracts were 887.6 ± 262.8 μg g −1, consisting mainly of cyanidin-3-sophoroside (C3S) equivalents. To test the efficacy of RR in diabetes treatment, seven patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were given one oral RR serving (123 g per day) for two weeks. Blood samples were drawn at the baseline (BSL) and post-feeding (PF) periods for phenolic metabolite, inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) biomarker analysis. Two urolithin conjugates, urolithin A glucuronide (Uro-A glur) and urolithin A sulphate (Uro-A sulf) were identified in the PF period in 5 of the 7 patients in nanomolar concentrations (1.6 ± 0.7–63.2 ± 31.2 nM). ACN-derived metabolites such as protocatechuic acid (PCA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were at micromolar levels and were higher during the PF period for diabetics and the levels were as follows: BSL: PCA = 0.6 ± 0.4, DOPAC = 1.2 ± 0.5; PF: PCA = 0.6 ± 0.4, DOPAC = 1.1 ± 0.6. The results revealed significant reductions in high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP ( p = 0.01) and there was a downward trend in IR measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, p = 0.0584) in T2DM patients. DOPAC (1–100 μM) failed to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. The multiplex assay showed variations in the cytokine levels between patients, but differences were not significant. This study demonstrates a potential use of RR in the treatment of inflammation and possibly IR as well in patients with type 2 diabetes.