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      Update on Giardia: Highlights from the seventh International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference Translated title: Mise à jour sur Giardia et la giardiase : faits saillants de la Septième Conférence Internationale sur Giardia et Cryptosporidium

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , * , 5

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Giardia, Giardiasis, Epidemiology, Genomics

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          Abstract

          Although Giardia duodenalis is recognized as one of the leading causes of parasitic human diarrhea in the world, knowledge of the mechanisms of infection is limited, as the pathophysiological consequences of infection remain incompletely elucidated. Similarly, the reason for and consequences of the very specific genome-organization in this parasite with 2 active nuclei is only partially known. Consistent with its tradition, the 7th International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference (IGCC 2019) was held from June 23 to 26, 2019, at the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of the University of Rouen-Normandie, France, to discuss current research perspectives in the field. This renowned event brought together an international delegation of researchers to present and debate recent advances and identify the main research themes and knowledge gaps. The program for this interdisciplinary conference included all aspects of host-parasite relationships, from basic research to applications in human and veterinary medicine, as well as the environmental issues raised by water-borne parasites and their epidemiological consequences. With regard to Giardia and giardiasis, the main areas of research for which new findings and the most impressive communications were presented and discussed included: parasite ecology and epidemiology of giardiasis, Giardia-host interactions, and cell biology of Giardia, genomes and genomic evolution. The high-quality presentations discussed at the Conference noted breakthroughs and identified new opportunities that will inspire researchers and funding agencies to stimulate future research in a “one health” approach to improve basic knowledge and clinical and public health management of zoonotic giardiasis.

          Translated abstract

          Bien que Giardia duodenalis soit reconnu comme l’une des principales causes de diarrhée parasitaire humaine dans le monde, la connaissance des mécanismes de l’infection est limitée, car ses conséquences physiopathologiques restent incomplètement élucidées. De même, la raison et les conséquences de l’organisation génomique très spécifique de ce parasite à deux noyaux actifs ne sont que partiellement connues. Conformément à sa tradition, la 7 ème Conférence internationale sur Giardia et Cryptosporidium (IGCC 2019) s’est tenue du 23 au 26 juin 2019, à la Faculté de médecine et de pharmacie de l’Université de Rouen-Normandie, France, pour discuter des perspectives de recherche actuelles dans ce champ. Cet événement de renom a réuni une délégation internationale de chercheurs pour présenter et débattre des avancées récentes et identifier les principaux thèmes de recherche et les lacunes dans les connaissances. Le programme de cette conférence interdisciplinaire comprenait tous les aspects des relations hôtes-parasites, de la recherche fondamentale aux applications en médecine humaine et vétérinaire, ainsi que les problèmes environnementaux soulevés par les parasites d’origine hydrique et leurs conséquences épidémiologiques. En ce qui concerne Giardia et la giardiase, les principaux domaines de recherche pour lesquels de nouvelles découvertes et les communications les plus impressionnantes ont été présentées et discutées comprenaient : l’écologie parasitaire et l’épidémiologie de la giardiase, les interactions Giardia-hôte, la biologie cellulaire de Giardia, les génomes et l’évolution génomique. Les présentations de haute qualité discutées lors de la conférence ont noté des avancées et identifié de nouvelles opportunités qui inspireront les chercheurs et les agences de financement à stimuler la recherche future dans une approche « une seule santé » pour améliorer les connaissances de base et la gestion clinique et de santé publique de la giardiase zoonotique.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

          The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect Giardia's requirement for a complex signal transduction network for coordinating differentiation. Lateral gene transfer from bacterial and archaeal donors has shaped Giardia's genome, and previously unknown gene families, for example, cysteine-rich structural proteins, have been discovered. Unexpectedly, the genome shows little evidence of heterozygosity, supporting recent speculations that this organism is sexual. This genome sequence will not only be valuable for investigating the evolution of eukaryotes, but will also be applied to the search for new therapeutics for this parasite.
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            Zoonotic potential of Giardia.

            Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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              The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease.

              More than one-fifth of the world's population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7-9 years old. A child's height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or 'human capital'. To this 'double burden' of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a 'triple burden' of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                13 August 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Biological Sciences, University of Calgary TN4N1 Calgary (AB) Canada
                [2 ] Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita 00161 Rome Italy
                [3 ] French National Cryptosporidiosis Reference Center, Rouen University Hospital 1 rue de Germont 76031 Rouen cedex France
                [4 ] EA 7510, UFR Santé, University of Rouen Normandy, Normandy University 22 bd Gambetta 76183 Rouen cedex France
                [5 ] Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University SE 75124 Uppsala Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: loic.favennec@ 123456univ-rouen.fr
                Article
                parasite200091 10.1051/parasite/2020047
                10.1051/parasite/2020047
                7425178
                32788035
                © A.G. Buret et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Review Article

                genomics, epidemiology, giardiasis, giardia

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