Background: The Microsperes-Based Detoxification System (MDS) represents a flexible therapeutic option for various diseases, depending on the specificity of the adsorbents applied. A potential application of the MDS is the supportive therapy of sepsis. Methods: Microadsorbents for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were prepared by immobilization of anti-TNF antibodies on cellulose (1–10 µm) and applied in an experimental set-up using a pool of human plasma (1 liter) spiked with TNF (800 pg/ml) and its soluble receptors (1,000 pg/ml each). Removal of TNF was compared using a plasma filter and the albumin-permeable filter Albuflow. Results: Addition of 4 (2) g of adsorbent to the filtrate circuit reduced TNF concentrations in the pool by 80% (64%). Removal rates did not differ significantly for the different filters. TNF adsorption was not influenced by the presence of excess TNF receptors. Conclusions: Concentrations of mediators can be efficiently modulated with the MDS using small quantities of specific adsorbents.