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      Physicochemical Properties and Surfaces Morphologies Evaluation of MTA FillApex and AH Plus

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          Abstract

          The solubility, pH, electrical conductivity, and radiopacity of AH Plus and MTA FillApex were evaluated. In addition, the surfaces morphologies of the sealers were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy. For pH test, the samples were immersed in distilled water at different periods of time. The same solution was used for electrical conductivity measurement. The solubility and radiopacity were evaluated according to ANSI/ADA. Statistical analyses were carried out at 5% level of significance. MTA FillApex presented higher mean value for solubility and electrical conductivity. No significant difference was observed in the mean values for pH reading. AH Plus presented higher radiopacity mean values. MTA FillApex presented an external surface with porosities and a wide range of sizes. In conclusion, the materials fulfill the ANSI/ADA requirements when considering the radiopacity and solubility. AH Plus revealed a compact and homogeneous surface with more regular aspects and equal particle sizes.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Hydration mechanisms of mineral trioxide aggregate.

          To report the hydration mechanism of white mineral trioxide aggregate (White MTA, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK, USA). The chemical constitution of white MTA was studied by viewing the powder in polished sections under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydration of both white MTA and white Portland cement (PC) was studied by characterizing cement hydrates viewed under the SEM, plotting atomic ratios, performing quantitative energy dispersive analyses with X-ray (EDAX) and by calculation of the amount of anhydrous clinker minerals using the Bogue calculation. Un-hydrated MTA was composed of impure tri-calcium and di-calcium silicate and bismuth oxide. The aluminate phase was scarce. On hydration the white PC produced a dense structure made up of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, monosulphate and ettringite as the main hydration products. The un-reacted cement grain was coated with a layer of hydrated cement. In contrast MTA produced a porous structure on hydration. Levels of ettringite and monosulphate were low. Bismuth oxide was present as un-reacted powder but also incorporated with the calcium silicate hydrate. White MTA was deficient in alumina suggesting that the material was not prepared in a rotary kiln. On hydration this affected the production of ettringite and monosulphate usually formed on hydration of PC. The bismuth affected the hydration mechanism of MTA; it formed part of the structure of C-S-H and also affected the precipitation of calcium hydroxide in the hydrated paste. The microstructure of hydrated MTA would likely be weaker when compared with that of PC.
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            Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) solubility and porosity with different water-to-powder ratios.

            This study tested mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) solubility and porosity with different water-to-powder proportions. The study also determined the chemical composition of the salts dissolved by MTA. Four sets of specimens using the following water-to-powder proportions were prepared: 0.26, 0.28, 0.30, and 0.33 grams of water per gram of cement. The latter is the ratio recommended by the manufacturer. It was determined that the degree of solubility and porosity increased as the water-to-powder ratio increased. Significant differences were found among the sets of specimens. The chemical analyses of the salts dissolved by MTA in the water identified the presence of calcium as the main chemical compound. The pH level of the solution was highly alkaline, ranging between 11.94 and 11.99. It can be stated that the calcium found in the solution should be in its hydroxide state at this high pH level. This ability to release calcium hydroxide could be of clinical significance because it could be related to the proven capacity of MTA to induce mineralization.
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              Physical properties of 5 root canal sealers.

              The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH change, viscosity and other physical properties of 2 novel root canal sealers (MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC) in comparison with 2 epoxy resin-based sealers (AH Plus and ThermaSeal), a silicone-based sealer (GuttaFlow), and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer (Pulp Canal Sealer).
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Faculty of Dentistry, University of Cuiabá, Avenida Manoel José de Arruda 3.100, Jardim Europa, 78065-900 Cuiabá, MT, Brazil
                2Master Program in Chemistry, Mato Grosso Federal University, Avenida Fernando Corrêa da Costa 2367, Boa Esperança, 78060-900 Cuiabá, MT, Brazil
                3Master Program in Dentistry, UNICEUMA, Rua Josué Montello 01, Renascença, 65075-120 São Luís, MA, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Álvaro Henrique Borges: alvarohborges@ 123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Sema Belli

                Journal
                ScientificWorldJournal
                ScientificWorldJournal
                TSWJ
                The Scientific World Journal
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2356-6140
                1537-744X
                2014
                4 May 2014
                : 2014
                4032737 10.1155/2014/589732
                Copyright © 2014 Álvaro Henrique Borges et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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