The orphan receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 (NR5A1) is a constitutive activator, and its activity is repressed by another orphan receptor, Dax-1 (NR0B1). In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this repression by Dax-1. Yeast two-hybrid and transient-transfection assays confirmed the necessity of three LXXLL-related motifs in Dax-1 for interaction with and repression of Ad4BP/SF-1. In vitro pull-down experiments confirmed that Dax-1 interacts with Ad4BP/SF-1 and also with LRH-1 (NR5A2). The target specificity of the LXXLL-related motifs was indicated by the observations that Ad4BP/SF-1, ERalpha (NR3A1), LRH-1, ERR2 (NR3B2), and fly FTZ-F1 (NR5A3) interacted through their ligand binding domains with all the LXXLL-related motifs in Dax-1 whereas HNF4 (NR2A1) and RORalpha (NR1F1) did not. Transcriptional activities of the receptors whose DNA binding domains (DBDs) were replaced by the GAL4 DBD were repressed by Dax-1 to various levels, which correlated with the strength of interaction. Amino acid substitutions revealed that Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1 preferentially interact with L(+1)XXLL-related motifs containing serine, tyrosine, serine, and threonine at positions -2, +2, +3, and +6, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that the specificities of LXXLL-related motifs in Dax-1 based on their amino acid sequences play an important role in regulation of orphan receptors.