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      Diversity and distribution of Epeorus (Caucasiron) (Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae) in Iran, with descriptions of three new species

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          Abstract

          Combining morphological and molecular data in an integrative approach, three new mayfly species of Epeorus ( Caucasiron ) are described. These include Epeorus ( Caucasiron ) alborzicus Hrivniak & Sroka, sp. nov. and Epeorus ( Caucasiron ) shargi Hrivniak & Sroka, sp. nov. from northern Iran, and Epeorus ( Caucasiron ) zagrosicus Hrivniak & Sroka, sp. nov. from central Iran. They are unambiguously delimited using both distance-based and likelihood-based approaches in the analyses of barcode COI sequences. Each new species is compared with other species of the subgenus and morphological diagnostic characters are provided. Based on extensive sampling of streams throughout the country, the distribution and habitat preferences of all Caucasiron species in Iran are assessed. Altogether, there are now six species recorded, among them also E. ( C. ) nigripilosus Sinitshenkova, 1976 is reported for the first time in Iran. Five species are distributed in the Alborz Mts. in northern Iran, one species was found in the Zagros Mts. in central Iran.

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          Most cited references 25

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          The Phylogenetic System of Ephemeroptera

           Nikita Kluge (2004)
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            Toward a DNA Taxonomy of Alpine Rhithrogena (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) Using a Mixed Yule-Coalescent Analysis of Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA

            Aquatic larvae of many Rhithrogena mayflies (Ephemeroptera) inhabit sensitive Alpine environments. A number of species are on the IUCN Red List and many recognized species have restricted distributions and are of conservation interest. Despite their ecological and conservation importance, ambiguous morphological differences among closely related species suggest that the current taxonomy may not accurately reflect the evolutionary diversity of the group. Here we examined the species status of nearly 50% of European Rhithrogena diversity using a widespread sampling scheme of Alpine species that included 22 type localities, general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model analysis of one standard mtDNA marker and one newly developed nDNA marker, and morphological identification where possible. Using sequences from 533 individuals from 144 sampling localities, we observed significant clustering of the mitochondrial (cox1) marker into 31 GMYC species. Twenty-one of these could be identified based on the presence of topotypes (expertly identified specimens from the species' type locality) or unambiguous morphology. These results strongly suggest the presence of both cryptic diversity and taxonomic oversplitting in Rhithrogena. Significant clustering was not detected with protein-coding nuclear PEPCK, although nine GMYC species were congruent with well supported terminal clusters of nDNA. Lack of greater congruence in the two data sets may be the result of incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphism. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of both gene regions recovered four of the six recognized Rhithrogena species groups in our samples as monophyletic. Future development of more nuclear markers would facilitate multi-locus analysis of unresolved, closely related species pairs. The DNA taxonomy developed here lays the groundwork for a future revision of the important but cryptic Rhithrogena genus in Europe.
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              The Mayflies of Europe (Ephemeroptera)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                08 July 2020
                : 947
                : 71-102
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Entomology, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic Institute of Entomology České Budějovice Czech Republic
                [2 ] Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic University of South Bohemia České Budějovice Czech Republic
                [3 ] Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic Masaryk University Brno Czech Republic
                [4 ] Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology, University of Łódź, Banacha 12/16, 90237 Łódź, Poland University of Łódź Łódź Poland
                [5 ] Department of Fishery, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, POB 1144, Sowmehsara-Rasht, Iran University of Guilan Sowmehsara-Rasht Iran
                [6 ] Department of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Daneshjou Boulevard, 1983969411 Tehran, Iran Shahid Beheshti University Tehran Iran
                [7 ] Department of Entomology, State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart Stuttgart Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Ľuboš Hrivniak ( lubos.hrivniak@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: B. Price

                Article
                51259
                10.3897/zookeys.947.51259
                7363713
                Ľuboš Hrivniak, Pavel Sroka, Jindřiška Bojková, Roman J. Godunko, Javid Imanpour Namin, Samereh Bagheri, Farshad Nejat, Ashgar Abdoli, Arnold H. Staniczek

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Ephemeroptera
                Heptaeniidae
                Hexapoda
                Insecta
                Invertebrata
                Catalogues and Checklists
                Faunistics & Distribution
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Asia
                Iran
                Middle East

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