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      Randomized Trial of an Inhibitor of Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products in Diabetic Nephropathy

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          Background/Aims: Pimagedine inhibits the formation of advanced glycation end products and slows the progression of diabetic complications in experimental models. This study was undertaken to determine if pimagedine ameliorates nephropathy in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study performed in 690 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The patients received twice daily dosing with placebo, pimagedine 150 mg, or pimagedine 300 mg for 2–4 years. The primary end point was the time to doubling of serum creatinine; the secondary end points included evaluations of proteinuria, kidney function, and retinopathy. Results: Serum creatinine doubled in 26% (61/236) of the placebo-treated patients and in 20% (91/454) of those who received pimagedine (p = 0.099). The estimated glomerular filtration rate decreased more slowly in the pimagedine-treated patients with a 36-month decrease from baseline of 6.26 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> as compared with 9.80 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> in the placebo-treated patients (p = 0.05), and pimagedine reduced the 24-hour total urinary proteinuria. (The mean reduction from baseline at month 36 was 732 mg/24 h at the low dose and 329 mg/24 h at the high dose as compared with 35 mg/24 h in the placebo group; p ≤ 0.001.) Fewer pimagedine-treated patients with baseline and end point evaluations (31/324; 10%) as compared with those receiving placebo (16%; 28/179) experienced a three-step or greater progression of the retinopathy (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study) score (p = 0.030). Three patients receiving high-dose pimagedine but none receiving low-dose treatment developed glomerulonephritis. Conclusions: While this study did not demonstrate a statistically significant beneficial effect of pimagedine on the progression of overt nephropathy resulting from type 1 diabetes, it is noteworthy in providing the first clinical proof of the concept that inhibiting advanced glycation end product formation can result in a clinically important attenuation of the serious complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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          Tobacco smoke is a source of toxic reactive glycation products.

          Smokers have a significantly higher risk for developing coronary and cerebrovascular disease than nonsmokers. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are reactive, cross-linking moieties that form from the reaction of reducing sugars and the amino groups of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. AGEs circulate in high concentrations in the plasma of patients with diabetes or renal insufficiency and have been linked to the accelerated vasculopathy seen in patients with these diseases. Because the curing of tobacco takes place under conditions that could lead to the formation of glycation products, we examined whether tobacco and tobacco smoke could generate these reactive species that would increase AGE formation in vivo. Our findings show that reactive glycation products are present in aqueous extracts of tobacco and in tobacco smoke in a form that can rapidly react with proteins to form AGEs. This reaction can be inhibited by aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of AGE formation. We have named these glycation products "glycotoxins." Like other known reducing sugars and reactive glycation products, glycotoxins form smoke, react with protein, exhibit a specific fluorescence when cross-linked to proteins, and are mutagenic. Glycotoxins are transferred to the serum proteins of human smokers. AGE-apolipoprotein B and serum AGE levels in cigarette smokers were significantly higher than those in nonsmokers. These results suggest that increased glycotoxin exposure may contribute to the increased incidence of atherosclerosis and high prevalence of cancer in smokers.
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            Effect of Ramipril vs Amlodipine on Renal Outcomes in Hypertensive NephrosclerosisA Randomized Controlled Trial

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              Prevention of cardiovascular and renal pathology of aging by the advanced glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine.

              Human aging is impacted severely by cardiovascular disease and significantly but less overtly by renal dysfunction. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been linked to tissue damage in diabetes and aging, and the AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) has been shown to inhibit renal and vascular pathology in diabetic animals. In the present study, the effects of AG on aging-related renal and vascular changes and AGE accumulation were studied in nondiabetic female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats treated with AG (0.1% in drinking water) for 18 mo. Significant increases in the AGE content in aged cardiac (P < 0.05), aortic (P < 0.005), and renal (P < 0.05) tissues were prevented by AG treatment (P < 0.05 for each tissue). A marked age-linked vasodilatory impairment in response to acetylcholine and nitroglycerine was prevented by AG treatment (P < 0.005), as was an age-related cardiac hypertrophy evident in both strains (P < 0.05). While creatinine clearance was unaffected by aging in these studies, the AGE/ creatinine clearance ratio declined 3-fold in old rats vs. young rats (S-D, P < 0.05; F344, P < 0.01), while it declined significantly less in AG-treated old rats (P < 0.05). In S-D but not in F344 rats, a significant (P < 0.05) age-linked 24% nephron loss was completely prevented by AG treatment, and glomerular sclerosis was markedly suppressed (P < 0.01). Age-related albuminuria and proteinuria were markedly inhibited by AG in both strains (S-D, P < 0.01; F344, P < 0.01). These data suggest that early interference with AGE accumulation by AG treatment may impart significant protection against the progressive cardiovascular and renal decline afflicting the last decades of life.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2004
                16 February 2004
                : 24
                : 1
                : 32-40
                aDepartment of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Va., USA; bDepartment of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada; cDepartment of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass., dHarbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, Calif., eColumbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, N.Y., fAlteon Inc., Ramsey, N.J., gDepartment of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C., hDepartment of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Tex., iMedStar Research Institute, Washington, DC, kDepartment of Medicine, Cornell University Medical School, New York, N.Y., and lNortheastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA
                75627 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:32–40
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 26, Pages: 9
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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