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      Deacylation on the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane regulates cardiolipin remodeling

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          Our understanding of the clinically relevant tafazzin-mediated cardiolipin (CL) remodeling pathway is incomplete. In this study, a new trafficking step required for CL remodeling has been identified. Further, it is demonstrated that flux through this CL remodeling pathway is controlled by the strength of the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient.


          The mitochondrial-specific lipid cardiolipin (CL) is required for numerous processes therein. After its synthesis on the matrix-facing leaflet of the inner membrane (IM), CL undergoes acyl chain remodeling to achieve its final form. In yeast, this process is completed by the transacylase tafazzin, which associates with intermembrane space (IMS)-facing membrane leaflets. Mutations in TAZ1 result in the X-linked cardiomyopathy Barth syndrome. Amazingly, despite this clear pathophysiological association, the physiological importance of CL remodeling is unresolved. In this paper, we show that the lipase initiating CL remodeling, Cld1p, is associated with the matrix-facing leaflet of the mitochondrial IM. Thus monolysocardiolipin generated by Cld1p must be transported to IMS-facing membrane leaflets to gain access to tafazzin, identifying a previously unknown step required for CL remodeling. Additionally, we show that Cld1p is the major site of regulation in CL remodeling; and that, like CL biosynthesis, CL remodeling is augmented in growth conditions requiring mitochondrially produced energy. However, unlike CL biosynthesis, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential stimulates CL remodeling, identifying a novel feedback mechanism linking CL remodeling to oxidative phosphorylation capacity.

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          Most cited references 80

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          New heterologous modules for classical or PCR-based gene disruptions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

          We have constructed and tested a dominant resistance module, for selection of S. cerevisiae transformants, which entirely consists of heterologous DNA. This kanMX module contains the known kanr open reading-frame of the E. coli transposon Tn903 fused to transcriptional and translational control sequences of the TEF gene of the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. This hybrid module permits efficient selection of transformants resistant against geneticin (G418). We also constructed a lacZMT reporter module in which the open reading-frame of the E. coli lacZ gene (lacking the first 9 codons) is fused at its 3' end to the S. cerevisiae ADH1 terminator. KanMX and the lacZMT module, or both modules together, were cloned in the center of a new multiple cloning sequence comprising 18 unique restriction sites flanked by Not I sites. Using the double module for constructions of in-frame substitutions of genes, only one transformation experiment is necessary to test the activity of the promotor and to search for phenotypes due to inactivation of this gene. To allow for repeated use of the G418 selection some kanMX modules are flanked by 470 bp direct repeats, promoting in vivo excision with frequencies of 10(-3)-10(-4). The 1.4 kb kanMX module was also shown to be very useful for PCR based gene disruptions. In an experiment in which a gene disruption was done with DNA molecules carrying PCR-added terminal sequences of only 35 bases homology to each target site, all twelve tested geneticin-resistant colonies carried the correctly integrated kanMX module.
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            Computational method to predict mitochondrially imported proteins and their targeting sequences.

             M Claros,  P Vincens (1996)
            Most of the proteins that are used in mitochondria are imported through the double membrane of the organelle. The information that guides the protein to mitochondria is contained in its sequence and structure, although no direct evidence can be obtained. In this article, discriminant analysis has been performed with 47 parameters and a large set of mitochondrial proteins extracted from the SwissProt database. A computational method that facilitates the analysis and objective prediction of mitochondrially imported proteins has been developed. If only the amino acid sequence is considered, 75-97% of the mitochondrial proteins studied have been predicted to be imported into mitochondria. Moreover, the existence of mitochondrial-targeting sequences is predicted in 76-94% of the analyzed mitochondrial precursor proteins. As a practical application, the number of unknown yeast open reading frames that might be mitochondrial proteins has been predicted, which revealed that many of them are clustered.
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              Membrane remodeling induced by the dynamin-related protein Drp1 stimulates Bax oligomerization.

              In response to many apoptotic stimuli, oligomerization of Bax is essential for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the ensuing release of cytochrome c. These events are accompanied by mitochondrial fission that appears to require Drp1, a large GTPase of the dynamin superfamily. Loss of Drp1 leads to decreased cytochrome c release by a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here we show that Drp1 stimulates tBid-induced Bax oligomerization and cytochrome c release by promoting tethering and hemifusion of membranes in vitro. This function of Drp1 is independent of its GTPase activity and relies on arginine 247 and the presence of cardiolipin in membranes. In cells, overexpression of Drp1 R247A/E delays Bax oligomerization and cell death. Our findings uncover a function of Drp1 and provide insight into the mechanism of Bax oligomerization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Role: Monitoring Editor
                Mol Biol Cell
                Mol. Biol. Cell
                Mol. Bio. Cell
                Molecular Biology of the Cell
                The American Society for Cell Biology
                15 June 2013
                : 24
                : 12
                : 2008-2020
                Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2185
                University of Chicago
                Author notes
                1Address correspondence to: Steven M. Claypool ( sclaypo1@ ).
                © 2013 Baile et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

                “ASCB®,” “The American Society for Cell Biology®,” and “Molecular Biology of the Cell®” are registered trademarks of The American Society of Cell Biology.

                Membrane Trafficking

                Molecular biology


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