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      Global Actions for Managing Cactus Invasions

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          The family Cactaceae Juss. contains some of the most widespread and damaging invasive alien plant species in the world, with Australia (39 species), South Africa (35) and Spain (24) being the main hotspots of invasion. The Global Cactus Working Group (IOBC GCWG) was launched in 2015 to improve international collaboration and identify key actions that can be taken to limit the impacts caused by cactus invasions worldwide. Based on the results of an on-line survey, information collated from a review of the scientific and grey literature, expertise of the authors, and because invasiveness appears to vary predictably across the family, we (the IOBC GCWG): (1) recommend that invasive and potentially invasive cacti are regulated, and to assist with this, propose five risk categories; (2) recommend that cactus invasions are treated physically or chemically before they become widespread; (3) advocate the use of biological control to manage widespread invasive species; and (4) encourage the development of public awareness and engagement initiatives to integrate all available knowledge and perspectives in the development and implementation of management actions, and address conflicts of interest, especially with the agricultural and ornamental sectors. Implementing these recommendations will require global co-operation. The IOBC GCWG aims to assist with this process through the dissemination of information and experience.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Environmental and Economic Costs of Nonindigenous Species in the United States

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            DNA barcodes for biosecurity: invasive species identification.

            Biosecurity encompasses protecting against any risk through 'biological harm', not least being the economic impact from the spread of pest insects. Molecular diagnostic tools provide valuable support for the rapid and accurate identification of morphologically indistinct alien species. However, these tools currently lack standardization. They are not conducive to adaptation by multiple sectors or countries, or to coping with changing pest priorities. The data presented here identifies DNA barcodes as a very promising opportunity to address this. DNA of tussock moth and fruit fly specimens intercepted at the New Zealand border over the last decade were reanalysed using the cox1 sequence barcode approach. Species identifications were compared with the historical dataset obtained by PCR-RFLP of nuclear rDNA. There was 90 and 96% agreement between the methods for these species, respectively. Improvements included previous tussock moth 'unknowns' being placed to family, genera or species and further resolution within fruit fly species complexes. The analyses highlight several advantages of DNA barcodes, especially their adaptability and predictive value. This approach is a realistic platform on which to build a much more flexible system, with the potential to be adopted globally for the rapid and accurate identification of invasive alien species.
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              Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate.


                Author and article information

                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                16 October 2019
                October 2019
                : 8
                : 10
                [1 ]Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa; franz.essl@ (F.E.); llewellyn.foxcroft@ (L.C.F.); sabrina.kumschick@ (S.K.); petr.pysek@ (P.P.); rich@ (D.M.R.); jrwilson@ (J.R.U.W.)
                [2 ]South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research Centre, Private Bag X7, Claremont 7735, South Africa; haylee.kaplan@
                [3 ]Institute of Botany, Department of Invasion Ecology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic
                [4 ]Department of Agriculture, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy; gbrundu@
                [5 ]Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, GPO Box 267, Brisbane Qld 4001, Queensland, Australia; Michael.Day@
                [6 ]VAERSA-Generalitat Valenciana, E-46011 Valencia, Spain; vdeltoro@
                [7 ]Division of Conservation Biology, Vegetation and Landscape Ecology, Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria
                [8 ]Conservation Services, South African National Parks, Skukuza 1350, South Africa
                [9 ]Anses, Laboratoire de la Santé des Végétaux, Unité Entomologie et Plantes invasives, 34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez Cedex, France; guillaume.fried@
                [10 ]Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Baron-Hay Court, South Perth 6151, Australia; 1weeds@
                [11 ]Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal; elizabete.marchante@ (E.M.); hmarchante@ (H.M.)
                [12 ]Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, 3045-601 Coimbra, Portugal
                [13 ]Centre for Biological Control, Department of Zoology and Entomology, PO Box 94, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6139, South Africa; i.paterson@
                [14 ]Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-128 44 Prague, Czech Republic
                [15 ]CABI Africa, Nairobi 633-00621, Kenya; a.witt@
                [16 ]Helmuth Zimmermann & Associates, Pretoria 0043, South Africa; zimmermannhelmuth@
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: novoa.perez.ana@ ; Tel.: +420-737-900-315
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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